The Toxic Substances Control Act Tsca 411 TSCA Statutory and Regulatory Background

The federal law implemented and enforced by the EPA most often cited in connection with regulating nanoscale substances that are intentionally manipulated by human activity, and not on naturally occurring nanoscale particles (volcanic ash) or incidental nanoscale materials (combustion byproducts), is the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) 1 TSCA regulates new and existing chemical substances and provides a regulatory framework to address chemicals throughout their production, use, and disposal...

The EPA White Paper

The EPA Nanotechnology White Paper includes a discussion of FIFRA . The EPA notes its expectation that p esticide products containing nanomaterials will be subject to FIFRA's review and registration requirements 24 .* The EPA also observes that nanotechnologies may produce m ore-targeted fertilizers and pesticides that result in less agricultural and lawn garden runoff of nitrogen, phosphorous, and toxic substances is potentially an important emerging application of nanotechnol o g ies that can...

Mixture and Derived From Rules

Under RCRA's rule, if a listed hazardous waste is mixed with other material, the entire mixture assumes the status of the listed waste.** While RCRA requirements do not explicitly apply to nanoscale materials, there is no reason to believe that they do not Accordingly, if a listed hazardous waste is processed in a way that causes it to generate a sludge, spill residue, ash emission control dust, leachate, or other form of solid waste 48 , then under the derived-from rule, the resulting solid...

The Consumer Product Safety Commission Cpsc

Despite the reportedly growing number of consumer products enabled by nanotech-nology, the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) has been relatively inactive, at least publicly, on nanotechnology matters . The CPSC is a member of the NNI but has yet to develop any public guidance or other documents with the exception of the CPSC's 2005 issuance of its Nanomaterial Statement 52 . According to the CPSC, the introduction of consumer products containing nano-materials into the marketplace may...

Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge the scientists and engineers who reviewed drafts of this manuscript and provided valuable perspective, including Larry S . Andrews, Ph .D., Rohm & Haas Janis Bunting, General Dynamics Stefanie Giese-Bogdan, Dr.rer. nat . , 3M Laurie Gneiding, AMEC Martin P. A . Griffin, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Kimberly A . Groff, Ph . D. , AMEC Richard Johnson, Ph D , Oregon Health and Science University Maria Victoria Peeler, Washington State Department...

Electrical Low Pressure Impactor ELPI

The electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) is an extension of cascade impactor technology that includes the multi-stage cascade impactor with detector technology to provide real-time data for both particle size and concentration This makes it possible to measure rapidly changing conditions in ambient air The design of the ELPI is based on combining electrical detection principles with low-pressure impactor size classification The gas sample containing the particles passes through an electrical...

Aerosol Diffusion Charger

The same measurement principle as used for the epiphaniometer is applied in aerosol diffusion chargers but without the requirement for a radioactive source Ions are produced in a carrier gas by electrical discharge The ions attach to the surface of the particles, which are then collected in an electrically insulated particle filter The electric charge is converted to a direct current DC voltage signal in an electrometer amplifier Studies have shown that these devices provide a good estimate of...

The Brunauer Emmett Teller BET Method

The BET method is named for the three scientists who recognized that particulate surface area can be determined based on the volume of gas that will adsorb to the surface of a given mass of sample The BET equation relates the volume of gas adsorbed to form a monolayer, the size of the gas molecules, and the mass of the material to derive surface area per unit mass Commercial analyzers are available that perform this measurement, which may be used during development and production In a...

Types Of Nanomaterials And Applications

New applications of nanotechnology appear constantly. The Nanotechnology Consumer Products Inventory maintained by the Woodrow Wilson Institute listed over 500 consumer products containing nanomaterials as of June 2007 1 . The inventory grew from 212 to 502 products between March 2006 and June 2007, demonstrating the explosive growth of this market Those products represent an extraordinarily wide range of applications The list of products below demonstrates the range by example...