Contents

Thermodynamic Properties of 7 2. Development of Composite Materials Based P. Y. Detkov, V. A. Popov, V. G. Kulichikhin, and S. I. Chukhaeva 3. Diamondoids as Molecular Building Blocks for 44 4. Surface Modification and Application of Functionalized Renuga Gopal, Ma Zuwei, Satinderpal Kaur, and Seeram Ramakrishna 5. Zinc Oxide Nanorod Arrays Properties 6. Nanoparticles, Nanorods, and Other Nanostructures Assembled 7. Thermal Properties of Carbon 154 Mohamed. A. Osman, Aron W. Cummings,...

Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

Polymeric nanofiber matrix has similar structure to nanoscaled nonwoven fibrous ECM proteins, and thus is a wonderful candidate for ECM-mimic materials 4 . In recent years, the ease of polymer nanofiber fabrication using electrospinning began to stimulate more and more researchers to explore the application of nanofiber matrix as a tissue engineering scaffold 5-8 . A successful tissue engineering scaffold should have cell-compatible surfaces to allow cell attachment and proliferation. Based on...

Hierarchical Tactics of Bone

Bone is considered an assemblage of hierarchical structural units or building blocks elegantly designed at many length scales, macro to nano and so, to meet multiple functions, including strength to the body. When bone is initially laid down, it is structurally weak and unorganized. But within a few days, the primary bone cortical cancellous osteons S trabeculae mineralized collagen collagen moEecules & bone minerals cortical cancellous osteons S trabeculae mineralized collagen collagen...

Self Assembly of Nanoparticles on Solid Substrates

Nanoparticles have been assembled on a wide range of conductive, semi-conductive, and insulating materials. Techniques have been developed to produce nanoparticle microarrays or close-packed nanoparticle monolayers on a solid substrate 10 . Layer-by-layer assembly has also been conceived to direct the formation of thin films containing nanoparticles 106,107 . Nanoparticle multilayers are constructed using the same nanoparticle, or different nanoparticles even in the same architecture 10,107 ....

Diamondoids for Host Guest Chemistry

The main aim in host-guest chemistry is to construct molecular receptors by a self-assembly process so that such receptors could, to some extent, gain molecular recognition capability. Such molecular recognition capability is for the goal of either mimicking or blocking a biological effect caused by molecular interactions 61 . Calixarenes, which are macrocyclic compounds, are one of the best building blocks to design molecular hosts in supramolecular chemistry 146 . Synthesis of Calix 4 arenes...

Solution Phase Methods Based on Hydrothermal Synthesis

Autoclave For Hydrothermal Synthesis

Wet-chemistry methods to grow ZnO nanowires are appealing because of the low growth temperatures and good potential for scale-up. The hydrothermal technique Figure 5.1. Schematic diagram of the mini-stainless steel autoclave and the Teflon liner. Figure 5.1. Schematic diagram of the mini-stainless steel autoclave and the Teflon liner. has enjoyed a revived interest in the last five years due to the ease and flexibility in preparing a wide range of nanomaterials at low temperatures. The term...

Synthesis of Superhard Materials

Hpht Toroid

Superhard phases of C60 were obtained using a toroid-type apparatus 1 improved to produce higher pressures up to 15 GPa 2 . High pressures were developed in a chamber consisting of two coaxial profiled anvils with a container with the sealing rings between them (Figure 16.1a). The chamber was placed into a hydraulic press with pressure multiplication. The force-transferring pistons in the press were of consecutively decreasing area to have the smallest-area piston exert the highest pressure on...

Raman Peak Assignments

In many Raman scattering studies of Ge nanostructures grown on Si substrates, the Si acoustical-overtone 2TA(X) and 2TA( ) phonons 22 (abbreviated as Si-2TA) from the Si substrate can be erroneously attributed to the Ge-Ge vibrations of the sample due to the fact that both the Ge-Ge mode and Si-2TA are located at the same frequency ( 300 cm-1) 8 . Except in the case of high compressive built-in strain in the Ge layers 2 , these two phonon modes are hardly resolved at ambient pressure. This fact...

Current Scenario of Bone Grafting

Bone grafting is a surgical method that repairs or replaces the defective bones with healthy bones with the aid of materials or substances either from the patient's own body or from synthetic sources. The materials used for bone grafting are known as bone graft materials or bone grafts. They are widely used in orthopedic surgery, plastic surgery, oral and maxillofacial surgery, and dental surgery. It should be noted that bone is the second most transplanted tissue in humans. Bone grafts not...

Environmental Monitoring

Another assay situation that may involve a considerable degree of the unknown is that of environmental monitoring. The primary measurement medium here will be water or air, but the variety of target analytes is vast. At sites of potential pollution, such as in factory effluent, it would be desirable to install online real-time monitoring and alarms, aimed at specific analytes, but in many cases random or discrete monitoring of both target species and general hazardous compounds would be...

Self Assembly of Nanoparticles Using Biomolecules as Templates

Functionalization Diatom Silica

Much attention has been directed to organizing nanoparticles into an ordered structure. A number of strategies such as solvent evaporation 83,84 , Langmuir-Blodgett techniques 85 , and shape-directed assembly 86 are available for ordering of nanoparticles into structured assemblies, and construction of large and complex systems. Alternatively, nanoparticles can be assembled through chemical coupling in solution via bivalent cross-linkers. An example is the alkyldithiol-directed aggregation of...

Radiation Induced Graft CoPolymerization

Radiation can generally be classified into two categories, high energy radiation (also known as ionization radiation) and low energy radiation. Each can be further subclassified. There are two types of low energy, visible light and UV radiation with particle energy of up to about 50 eV, commonly used for nanofiber irradiation. UV radiation interacts with the substance in the primary stages by the mechanism Non-ionization radiation UV light + P Ionization radiation electrons or gamma-rays Figure...

Oriented Assembly of ZnO on Curved Surfaces

The challenge is to grow uniformly coated ZnO nanorods on curved surfaces. This is where hydrothermal synthesis affords unique advantages compared to vapor phase techniques due to the isotropic supply of reactants to the growing face in the solution phase. To evaluate this, carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays grown on silicon by chemical vapor deposition technique are used as the substrate. The CNT arrays are precoated with 5-nm-thick Al film, and then subjected to hydrothermal synthesis using similar...

Nanomedicine

Nanomedicine is concerned with the application of nanotechnology to medicine 18 . In addition to futuristic (and often scary) scenarios such as those represented by nanorobots operating inside the human body, more realistic applications of nanomedicine have been proposed. Among them, we mention the development of nanocapsules for drug delivery, fullerene-based drugs and sensors, artificial enzymes and antibodies, and tools for medical diagnostics and monitoring. As far as polyhedral...

Fields of Application of Nanodiamond Powders

The most developed application of UDD is their use for strengthening composite electrochemical chromium-based coatings. Ultradisperse diamond is introduced into the standard chromium-plating electrolyte usually as suspension. The Table 2.2 The major physicochemical parameters of ultradisperse detonation diamond powder produced at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center-Zababakhin All-Russian Research Institute of Technical Physics, Snezhinsk, Chelyabinsk Region. Table 2.2 The major physicochemical...

Osteoconductive Bone Grafts

Osteoconduction is a physical effect wherein the matrix of the graft acts as a scaffold on which cells are able to form new bone tissue. In other words, the bone-healing response is conducted through the graft. Accordingly, osteoconduc-tive bone grafts are to serve as a structural framework through which host bone infiltrates and regenerates new bone tissue. The best examples of osteoconductive grafts are autogenic- and allogenic-cancellous bones, HA, and purified collagen (see Table 13.3)....

Chemical Composition

The basis of the UDD samples was determined to be carbon, no less than 85 wt . Major impurity elements were oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen microimpurities mainly elemental metals (Ca, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ti, Fe, Na, K, Ba, Al, Mg, B, Mn, Si, S, Cl) were in total from 0.2 (type 2 pure UDD) up to 2 (standard UDD). The concentration of each impurity element and especially microimpurities varied depending on the particular features of synthesis and the purification technique. Thus, additional purification of...

Structure of Superhard Materials

Fullerites Phase Diagram

The crystalline structure of the high-pressure phases of fullerites was studied using the powder diffraction method. The diffractograms of the metastable phases of C60 fullerite were obtained by a KARD-6 diffractometer with the two-dimensional area detector developed at the Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences 3 . The detector is a flat multichannel proportional chamber with fast delay lines. A graphite monochromator (transmission geometry, CuKa radiation (40 kV x 30 mA)...

Antimony on Graphite

Oxygen 001 Stm

Among various materials deposited on HOPG or amorphous carbon, particularly rich phenomena have been reported for Sb clusters (Sbn) in a size range of n 4 to 2300 26,76-79 . Depending on the size n of Sbn, the Sb islands formed on graphite vary from compact spheres for n 4 to ramified fractals for n > 90. The fractal branch width decreases as n increases. These phenomena are explained in terms of the interplay of Sbn arriving rate at an existing island, and the time it takes for clusters in...

Key Factors of an Ideal Bone Graft

Although most of the synthetic grafts available possess favorable characteristics for bone regeneration currently none resembles autogenic bone, which further stimulates research in bone grafting. It is worthwhile to recall that reconstruction of bone tissue by synthetic bone grafts having structure, composition, and biological features that mimic natural bone tissue is the ultimate goal to be pursued for any bone grafting. Therefore, engineering a bone graft with these features is a real...

References

Int. Symposium Detonation Nanodiamonds Technology, Properties and Applications, July 7-9, St. Petersburg, Russia. 2 Vozniakovskii, A.P. (2003). In Proc. Int. Symposium Detonation Nanodiamonds Technology, Properties and Applications, July 7-9, St. Petersburg, Russia. 3 Chuhaeva, S.I. (2003). In Proc. Int. Symposiuim Detonation Nanodiamonds Technology, Properties and Applications, July 7-9, St. Petersburg, Russia. 4 Gubin, S.A., Odintsov, V.V., andPepekin, V.V....

Application of Diamondoids as MBBs

The importance of applications of diamondoids in nanotechnology is their potential role as MBBs. Diamondoids have noticeable electronic properties. In fact, they are H-terminated diamond and the only semiconductors that show a negative electron affinity 12 . Diamondoids may be used in self-assembly, positional assembly, nanofabrica-tion, and many other important methods in nanotechnology. Although adamantane has been the subject of many research projects in the field of pharmacophore-based drug...

General Applications of Diamondoids

Each successively higher diamondoid family shows increasing structural complexity and varieties of molecular geometries. Sui generis properties of diamondoids have provoked an extensive range of inquiries in different fields of science and technology. For example, they have been used as templates for crystallization of zeolite catalysts 25 , the synthesis of high-temperature polymers 26 , and in pharmacology. In pharmacology, two adamantane derivatives, Amantadine (1-adaman-taneamine...

Self Assembly of Aligned ZnO Nanorods on Any Substrates via a Mineral Interface

As an alternative to using ZnO as a buffer layer to promote growth in hydrothermal synthesis, we research a method that can promote ZnO nanorod growth on any substrate, regardless of its crystal type and shape (flat or curved). One way to reduce the interfacial energy between the nucleus and substrate is through surface modification. Taking a cue from biomineralization, where organisms control surface nucleation and growth on substrate materials that are relatively inert, we have identified a...

Theory of Electrical Mobility

For nonspherical aerosol particles, the electrical mobility is defined as 69,70 The dynamic shape factor, x0, for a nanotube is assumed to be the shape of a cylinder with an orientation perpendicular to the flow (Figure 9.5). The perpendicular orientation is assumed in this work because in a differential mobility analyzer the electric field is normal to the direction of the flow and it has been demonstrated that when CNTs are in the presence of an electric field, they align themselves with the...

Fabrication of Biosensors Using Polymer Nanofibers

Electrospinning 6 makes it possible to create self-supporting nonwoven meshes from polymer melts as well as lacy porous coatings on a variety of substrates. Membranes are one of the essential components of a biosensor. They are used for (1) preventing fouling, (2) eliminating interference, and (3) controlling the operating regime of the biosensor for example, when a small molecule is the analyte, macromolecules such as proteins can be prevented from entering the active site. The approach of...

Acquaintance Metallocarboranes

Nanotechnology is concerned with the research and development of nanometer-scale (1 100 nm) devices and materials 1,2 . In principle, two opposing routes towards the nanoscale can be pursued top-down and bottom-up. The top-down route approaches the nanoscale starting from macroscopic objects and with the aid of lithographic techniques. These are the methods of choice in the manufacturing of microstructures and micromachines with sizes in the range of 1-100 m 3 . The main factor limiting the...

Electrical Conductivity of 3DPolymerized Fullerites C6o Obtained by HPHT Treatment

The initial fullerite C60 has band-gap of 1.7 eV and possesses a high degree of localization of charge carriers on molecules due to the van der Waals character of intermolecular interaction in crystals. In polymerization of pure fullerenes a-orbitals are partially overlapped and strong cage nanostructures are synthesized based on molecules and clusters formed between molecules. Linear and planar polymers of fullerites obtained at a pressure of up to 8 GPa possess a strong anisotropy of...

Diamondoids for Drug Delivery and Drug Targeting

Adamantane derivatives can be employed as carriers for drug delivery and targeting systems. Due to their high lipophilicity, attachment of such groups to drugs with low hydrophobicity would lead to an increment of drug solubility in lipidic membranes and thus their uptake will increase. Furthermore, favorable geometric properties of adamantane and other diamondoids make it possible to introduce to them several functional groups, consisting of drug, targeting part, linker, and the like, without...

Cubane

Cubane belongs to a typical class of molecular solids such as carbon clusters C60, C70 . Due to its peculiar structure i.e., the C-C-C bond angle is 90o rather than the customary 109.5o , cubane stores a great deal of energy, which implies its explosiveness. Cubane was firstly synthesized in 1964 13 but its remarkable properties, such as potential pharmaceutical applications, have been realized only recently. One of its derivatives, tetranitrocubane, is a very powerful explosive, yet it is...

Solubilities of Diamondoids in Supercritical Solvents

As mentioned before, adamantane and diamantane are the first two members in the diamondoid series, and the most prevalent diamondoid compounds in natural gas. Their measured solubilities in methane, ethane, and carbon dioxide, which are three major components of natural gas, have been reported here 15 . The experimental solubilities of adamantane C1oH16 in ethane, carbon dioxide, and methane at 333 K are presented in Table 1.6, whereas solubility data for diamantane C14H20 in ethane and carbon...

Structural and Electronic Properties 1121 Borane Clusters

Borane clusters have been classified according to the topology of their molecular frameworks. Accordingly, closo boranes from the Greek clovos, meaning cage are closed polyhedra, nido from the Latin nidus, meaning nest boranes are semi-closed polyhedra, and arachno from the Greek arachne, meaning spider's web boranes possess open structures 6 . Both nido and arachno boranes are neutral specie whereas closo boranes are stable as dianions of chemical formula Bn Hn 2-, with n 5-12. Figure 11.1...

Silicon and Germanium on Silicon Nitride

On the crystalline SiNx film grown on Si 111 shown in Figure 6.2b, Si and Ge atoms also nucleate into 3-D islands. However, the nucleation takes place almost uniformly all over the surface, and the nucleation density does not change sensitively with substrate temperature. This is mainly due to the existence of many surface defects that act as nucleation sites. Figure 6.12a is an image of Si clusters Figure 6.12. STM images of Si and Ge grown on crystalline SiNx Si 111 . a 5-nm Si deposited at...

Diamondoid Molecules

Isomers Diamantane

Diamondoid molecules are cagelike saturated hydrocarbons. These molecules are ringed compounds, that have a diamondlike structure consisting of a number of six-member carbon rings fused together. They are called diamondoid because they can be assumed as repeating units of the diamond. The most famous member of this group, adamantane, is a tricyclic saturated hydrocarbon tricyclo 3.3.1.1 decane . Figure 3.2. Molecular structures of adamantane, diamantane, and trimantane, the smaller diamondoids,...