Immunosensors are biosensors that embody antibodies as their selective binding components. They take advantage of the high selectivity provided by the molecular recognition of antibodies. Because of significant differences in affinity constants antibodies may confer an extremely high sensitivity to immunosensors in comparison to enzyme sensors.
Immunosensors can be divided in principle into two categories: nonlabeled and labeled immunosensors. Nonlabeled immunosensors are designed so that the immunocomplex that is the antigen-antibody complex is directly determined by measuring the physical changes induced by the formation of the complex. In contrast, in a labeled immunosensor a sensitively detectable label is incorporated.
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