Contents

Series Foreword xv

Preface xvii

Acknowledgments xxi

1. What Is Nanotechnology? 1

Introduction 1

What Is Nanotechnology? 1

Living with Nanoparticles 3

Nano, Nano, Nano 3

Nanotechnology, a Future Trillion Dollar Business 3

Nanotechnology Will Develop in Stages 4

Nanotechnology Products and Applications 4

Sporting Goods 4

Car Paint and Car Waxes 6

Antibacterial Cleansers 6

Medical Bandages 6

Apparel Industry 6

Sunscreens and Cosmetics 7

Organic Light-Emitting Displays or OLEDs 7

Future Applications of Nanotechnology 7

Environment 7

Solar Energy 7

Fuel Cells 8

Food and Agriculture 8

Automobiles and Aeronautics 8

Medical Applications 9

Lab-on-a-Chip 9

The U.S. Government Invests in Nanotechnology Research 10 Other Countries Are Also Investing in Nanotechnology

Research 10

What Do Americans Think of Nanotechnology? 10 Will Nanotechnology Be Used to Help People in

Developing Countries? 11

The Nanotechnology Job Market 13

The Need for Workers 13

Universities Offer Nanotechnology Youth Programs 13

The Fields of Study That Influence Nanotechnology 16

Feature: Mechanical Engineering 17

Major Nanotechnology Career Areas 17

What Are the Risks of Nanotechnology? 19

NANOSAFE2 20 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

(NIOSH) 20 Nanotechnology Environmental and Health

Implications (NEHI) 20

National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) 20

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 21 Center for Biological and Environmental

Nanotechnology (CBEN) 21

The Center for Responsible Nanotechnology 21 Nano Interview: Professor Martin L. Culpepper, Ph.D.,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology 21

Nano Activity: Cutting It Down to Nano 26

2. The Science of Nanotechnology 29

What Is Matter? 29

Forms of Matter 29

Properties of Matter 30

Properties of Matter Change at the Nanoscale 31

Volume to Surface Area 33 Matter's Smallest Particles: Matter Is Made Up of

Elements 33

The Periodic Table of Elements 33

Semiconductors 35

Smallest Part of An Element: The Atom 35

Inside the Atom: Subatomic Particles 36

Neutrons and Protons 36

Electrons 36

Isotopes 37

Models of the Atoms 37

Early Atomic Theory by Empedocles and Democritus 38

Atomic Number and Atomic Mass 39

Atoms and Molecules 39

Molecules and Chemical Bonding 40

Ionic Bonding 40

Covalent Bonds and Monomers 40

A Monomer 41

From Monomers to Polymers 41

Polymers and Nanotechnology 42

Polymer-Based Nanosponges 42

Polymer Solar Cells 43

A Unique Class of Synthetic Polymers, Dendrimers 43

Dendrimers and Drug Delivery 43

Molecular Self-Assembly and Nanofabrication 44

Soap Bubbles Self-Assemble 45

Using the Self-Assembly Strategy to Make Products 45

Other Applications of Molecular Self-Assembly 46

Self-Assembly in Medicine 46

NanoSonic, Inc. 47

Nano Interview: Dr. Richard Claus, President of Nanosonic 48 Nano Activity: Nanotechnology Demonstration Kit from

Nanosonic 50

3. The Nanotechnology Tool Box 55

Optical Microscopes 55

Scanning Probe Microscopes 56

Surface Area to Volume at the Nanoscale 56

Scanning Tunneling Microscopes (STM) 57

How Does the STM Work? 57

Atomic Force Microscopes (AFM) 57

How Does the AFM Work? 58

The Advantages of AFM 60

AFM Tips 61

Magnetic Force Microscopes 61

Interview: Nathan Unterman 61

Electron Microscopes 63

A Scanning Electron Microscope 63

Ernst Abbe 63

The Transmission Electron Microscope 64

How Does the TEM Work? 64

Scanning Electron Microscope 65

Hitachi Tabletop Microscope 66

Nanofabrication Cleanroom Facilities 66

Scanning Electron Microscopes and Photolithography 67

Nano-Imprint Lithography 68

Dip Pen Nanolithography 68

Thermal Dip Pen Nanolithography 69

NASA Virtual Lab 69

Nanomanipulators 70

Nanofabrication 70 Nano Interview: Associate Professor Dean Campbell,

Ph.D., Bradley University 71 Nano Activity: Modeling a Scanning Probe

Microscope 74

4. Carbon Nanotubes, Nanowires, and Nanocrystals 79

The Element Carbon 79

Products Made from Carbon 80

Some Uses of Carbon 80

Different Forms of Carbon 81

Diamond 82

Fullerenes and Nanotechnology 82

Buckyballs 83

Applications of Buckyballs 83

Carbon Nanotubes 83

Two Types of Nanotubes 85

How are Carbon Nanotubes Made? 86

Laser Ablation 86

Electric Arc Discharge 86

Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) 86

Applications of Carbon Nanotubes 86

Flat Panel Display Screens 88

Nanoscale Electronics and Carbon Nanotubes 88

AFM Probe Tips 90

Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Nanotubes 90

Actuators/Artificial Muscles 90

Nanotechnology in Chemical Sensors 91

Carbon Nanotubes and NASA 92

NASA Space Elevator 92

Not All Nanotubes are Carbon 92

Nanowires, Nanocrystals, and Quantum Dots 93

Nanowires 93

Production of Nanowires 93

Nanocrystals 93

Quantum Dots 94

Quantum Dots and Cancer 95

Quantum Dots for Solar Cells 95

Nanoshells 96 Nano Interview: Professor Timothy Sands, Ph.D., Purdue

University 96 Nano Activity: Building Buckyballs, a NASA Explores Activity 100

5. Nanotechnology in Medicine and Health 103

Cardiovascular Diseases 103

What Causes Cardiovascular Diseases? 104

Nanoparticles Break Down Blood Clots 105

Heart Stents and Nanotechnology 105

Cancer Detection and Diagnosis 106

Cancer 106

Cancer and Nanoshells 107

Cancer and Gold Nanoparticles 107

Breast Cancer and Nanoparticles 108

Nano Interview Dr. Edith Perez 109

Cancer and Dendrimers 111

Cancer and Cantilevers 112

Cancer and Quantum Dots 112

Cervical Cancer and Quantum Dots 112

The Targeted Nano-TherapeuticsTM (TNTTM) System 113

Diabetes and Nanotechnology 113

Nanorobots and Diabetes 114

Biosensors for Diabetes 114

Diabetes Research Continues 114

Tattoos for Diabetes 115

Implants and Prosthetics 115

Nanotechnology and Burn Victims 116

Diagnosis and Therapy 116

Molecular Imaging Diagnosis 117

Lab-on-a-Chip Diagnosis 117

Drug Delivery Using Nanoparticles 117

Advanced Drug Delivery Systems and Lab-on-a-Chip 118

Nanotechnology Fights Infections 119

Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology Research 119

Nano Interview: Matt Boyas and Sarah Perrone 120

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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