Example Simplifications

• The UVA and UVB light are each shown as two identical photons when in reality there are many more photons involved.

• The wavelengths of the two photons used to represent UVA and UVB light are shown to be the same when in reality each consists of a range of wavelengths.

• The ZnO particles are shown as "solid" balls when in reality they are clusters of ions.

• All of the ZnO particles are shown to be the same size, but in reality, there is a distribution of particle sizes.

• The damage of the UV rays to the skin doesn't show the DNA mutations that lead to cancer because of the size and timescale involved.

• The sunscreen solvent is a pale yellow, but it should be clear since it does not scatter (or absorb) light. How else could this be shown in the animations?

For the full version of this activity with all ten questions, please go to http://www.nanosense.org/activities/clearsunscreen/index.html and download the Teacher Materials for Lesson 4: How Sunscreens Appear: Scattering.


Atkinson, William Illsey. Nanocosm: Nanotechnology and the Big Changes Coming from the Inconceivably Small. New York: AMACOM/American Management Association, 2003.

Drexler, Eric K. Nanosystems: Molecular Machinery, Manufacturing, and Computation. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 1992.

Fishbine, Glenn. The Investor's Guide to Nanotechnology & Micromachines. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2001.

Hamakawa, Yoshihiro. Thin-Film Solar Cells. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2004.

Luryi, Serge, and Jimmy Xu. Future Trends in Microelectronics: Reflections on the Road to Nanotechnology. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1996.

Scientific American (authors). Key Technologies for the 21st Century: Scientific American: A Special Issue. New York: W.H. Freeman & Co, 1996.

Uldrich, Jack, and Deb Newberry. Next Big Thing Is Really Small: How Nanotechnology Will Change the Future of Your Business. New York: Crown Publishing Group, 2003.


Exploring the Nanoworld, movies of nano-structured materials including ferroflu-ids, memory metals, LEDs, self-assembly, and Lego models. National Science Foundation supported Materials Research Science and Engineering Center on Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. http://mrsec.wisc.edu/edetc

G Living.The Phoenix Electric Nano Battery SUV. http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=w-Zv5RFgmWY&NR

Electron-Beam Lithography. Nanopolis Online Multimedia Library. Electron-beam lithography is a technique for creating extremely fine patterns required for modern electronic circuits. http://online.nanopolis.net/viewer.php?subject_ id=139

Cosmetics. Nanopolis Online Multimedia Library. The cosmetics industry was one of the first industries to employ nanotechnology for cosmetics that include creams, moisturizers, and sunscreens. http://online.nanopolis.net/viewer.php?subject_ id=274


Nano Science and Technology Institute: http://www.nsti.org/ NanoBusiness Alliance: www.nanobusiness.org/ Center for Responsible Nanotechnology Newsletter: http://responsiblenontechnology.org/newletter.htm

Nanomagazine (founded 2001, many interviews with leading figures): http://www. nanomagazine.com

Nano Technology Magazine: http://nanozine.com

Small Times: Daily articles covering MEMS, nanotechnology, and microsystems, with a business angle. http://www.smalltimes.com

NanoInk, Inc.: Creator of Dip Pen Nanolithography (DPN) tools for fabricating MEMS and other nanoscale devices. Chicago. http://www.nanoink.net NanotechNews: News for nanotechnologists and investors: regular updates, many links to other nanotechnology Web sites, archives, search function, newswire. http://news.nanoapex.com/


Self-cleaning glass is a nanotechnology consumer product that is available today. But, what is self-cleaning glass and how does it work? For an activity to help you learn more about the product, go to the NNIN Nanotechnology Web site: http://www.nnin.org/nnin_edu.html

NanotechnoLogy for Food, Agriculture, Livestock, Aquaculture, and Forestry

Nanotechnology has the potential to provide the tools and the research to change the future of food technology. Applying the principles of nanotechnology, researchers can produce more nutritious food and beverages; improve food packaging, and develop special biosensors. These biosensors can monitor food safety and the health of crops, forest areas, fish ponds, and livestock.

According to one report, more than 200 companies worldwide are engaged in nanotech research and development related to food. The United States is the leader followed by Japan and China. All these countries and others will take part in a nanofood market that will surge from $2.6 billion today to $20.4 billion in 2010.

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