We use all the state-of-the-art tools and equipment we can get to do our work. Students building the vertical carbon nanotubes use scanning probe microscopes to measure the properties of the tubes. They use scanning electron microscopes to observe what they are doing because you cannot see these nanomaterials with a light optical microscope. Other techniques include using advanced lithography, a form of printing, to make patterns in a cleanroom environment. Students use an electron beam patterning system to write very fine lines, as narrow as about 10 nanometers, or about 50 atoms across. Lasers are used to measure properties of individual nanotubes to determine their semiconducting or metallic properties.
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