The convention iron wall (PRBs) was first used by researchers at the University of Waterloo at a site in Ontario, Canada. In the U.S., the first large-scale conventional iron wall was used in an industrial park in Sunnyvale, California. Since then, there have been many applications of the conventional PRB.
The iron nanoparticle remediation process is much newer and there are fewer of those that have been implemented. The first pilot program was initiated by Professor W.X. Zhang at Lehigh University. He established a pilot program at a chemical manufacturing site on the east coast and reported some favorable results. This was the first pilot-scaled program and since then there have been a number ofconsulting companies that have done more than a dozen versions of the nanoparticle iron wall installations.
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