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Alive after the Fall Review

Read alive after the fall to learn how to survive any kind of disaster you may face in the future. You will learn how to live off the grid and how to survive the most horrible scenarios your country may face. What medicine you must have for the emergency? How to find food and how to cook it? Many questions will arise in your head when you face the disaster but this guide will leave you prepared for the worse. The author AlexanderCain explains in details what disease spread in the dark times and what is the must have medicine. Alexander Cain also describes how to secure your car engine against EMP attack, and he teaches you about the most crucial electrical devices. How to save those electronic devices from EMP? The book teaches you how to build faraday cage in less than twenty five minutes to protect electronics from the EMP attack. Alexander also explains methods to prolong the shelf life of your food and medicine. When you read the bonus report you will learn how to survive nuclear attack and chemical attack. In last chapter Alexander explains how to get food and how to cock it without using electricity or gas. Continue reading...

Alive after the Fall Review Summary


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Author: Alexander Cain
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The author has done a thorough research even about the obscure and minor details related to the subject area. And also facts weren’t just dumped, but presented in an interesting manner.

Purchasing this ebook was one of the best decisions I have made, since it is worth every penny I invested on it. I highly recommend this to everyone out there.

Jumpstart Liberty Review

The world faces different forms of natural disasters such as earthquakes, volcano blast, and many others. On the other hand, the world might also face man-made disasters such as nuclear war, cold war or even electromagnetic pulse (EMP). In a case of any of the disasters striking, you would love to see your friends and family safe from the danger. These disasters, not only affects the country citizens but also the economy. Therefore, you might need ideas on how to do be safe. That is why you need the Jumpstart Liberty book. It is a well-drafted guide, which gives out vital information on ways in which you can handle yourself, your family and friends, in case of the tough moments ahead. The book is written by Ken White, with a view of helping us access several survival tricks with minimal struggle and problems. This is a fantastic guide that will prove handy in the hour of need. Get a copy today and learn how to face unforeseen occurrences. Continue reading...

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Richard Feynman 191B198B

Feynman was an American physicist and one of the three men who received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1965. Feynman, who was a long-term professor at California Institute of Technology, is best known as one of the people who worked on atomic weapons at Los Alamos during World War II. He also discovered what caused the 1986 Challenger explosion.

Potential Biomedical Applications Of Polymer Nanostructures

Miniature medical diagnostic systems such as lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices are a rapidly-growing market, with annual sales of over 1 billion and a growth rate of 65 9 . Currently, the most prominent market niche is genetic, protein, and immunoassay analyses for pharmaceutical development. Applications on the horizon include advanced medical diagnostics, toxicology, and homeland security. Although microarray and microflu-idic biosensors chips have reached commercialization in recent years, mass production of devices with well-defined nanoscale features is still not available. The value of such devices in the field of biomedical engineering is enormous. For example, in LOC systems, single molecule detection and rapid molecular analysis require an environment that approaches molecular size. Small proteins such as albumin and glucose have a characteristic dimension on the order of 5-10 nm, while most gene and DNA molecules are in the range of 1-100 nm 5, 6 , so nanoscale conduits are...

Dimensions Of The Problem

Major problem in Bangladesh'1-31 and in North America (e.g., the central valley of California'4'51 and New Hampshire.)'61 Industrial arsenic contamination has been found in New England'71 and the Pacific Northwest.'81 Stringent new Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines for arsenic in drinking water'9,101 make this a high-priority issue. Industrial activity has lead to mercury contamination in many parts of the world.'11-131 Lead contamination from lead-based paints and burning leaded gasoline resulted in significant blood lead concentrations for children in the United States.'141 Aboveground nuclear weapons testing by the United States and the Soviet Union in the early 1960s and nuclear accidents (e.g., Chernobyl) have spread low levels of radioactive actinides and radiocesium throughout the world environment.'151

The Expansion Of The Diamond Market

With the availability of diamond in more sizes and shapes, applications using this versatile material have increased steadily. The reduction of diamond prices also prompted the growth of its existing market. Diamond sales have been increasing for more than four decades, a feat unmatched by the growth in sale of any other material. The upward trend for all other industrial commodities will inevitably plateau in less than a decade (e.g. steel topped the production at around 800 million tons after World War II). This monotonous increase of industrial diamond sales implies that its market is far from being saturated. It would appear that sales for industrial diamond would continue to grow almost without limit due to the constant discoveries of novel diamond applications, provided that the price of diamond materials will continue to decrease due to the improvements in manufacturing efficiency.

The rise of nanotechnology in the United States

The NSRC network consists of five facilities, now under construction at the five DOE National Laboratories - Argonne, Brookhaven, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge and Sandia. These facilities will focus on the synthesis, processing and fabrication of nanoscale materials. Whereas access to NNIN facilities is based upon feasibility and scope of a users' project, and payment of user fees, access to the NSRCs is by external peer review of proposals, and is free. These facilities will contribute to understanding the fundamental science of nanomaterials. Here, too, emphasis is being given to the ELSI implications, particularly to the environmental, health and safety issues associated with nanoparticles. The National Laboratories are no strangers to adverse public reaction to their atomic and nuclear weapons work, and are attempting to open the NSRCs to the public to develop an informed perception of nanotechnology.

The Role of the US Government in Nanoscale Science and Technology

These roles are not unique to nanotechnology but rather reflect the roles that the U.S. government and many other governments around the world have played in the development and exploitation of science and technology at least since World War II. What is perhaps unique about the case of nanoscale science and technology is its accelerated pace of development, the broad spectrum of its potential benefits, and hence its potential to have a rapid and revolutionary impact on industry and society.

Research and Development

Prior to World War II the U.S. government played only a minor role in R& D funding. Private foundations, corporations, and internal university funds provided the bulk of support. The U.S. military funded some advanced development of technologies for deployment in Army and Navy equipment, but it did not provide significant support for basic research. The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA, precursor to NASA) played an important role in developing and testing new airfoil designs in the 1930s. The Department of Agriculture, through the Hatch Act of 1887, supported agricultural research at the land grant colleges. Federal support for basic research in the health sciences, and hence in biology, dates to the latter part of the nineteenth century but began as a major funding activity in the 1930s with the establishment of the National Institutes of Health. Except for these and a few other isolated examples, however, there was no systematic federal support for scientific...

Commercial Production Of Diamond Superabrasives

Natural diamond was the only superabrasive capable to machine tungsten carbide tools before 1957. During the World War I, the consumption of natural diamond surged to 0.4 ton a year. When World War II broke out, this demand increased drastically to 4 tons per year. At then only South Africa can export natural diamond, so US has stocked piled strategic supply of natural diamond that was released only after 2000. In 1941, Percy Bridgman was supported by General Electric, Norton, and Carborandum to explore the possible means of making diamond. This attempted was interrupted by World War II. After the war, Norton continued the trial but without success. In 1951, GE renewed the attempt and it eventually succeeded in making the first diamond in 1954. In 1957, GE introduced the first synthetic diamond superabrasive at its Carboloy department that mass manufactured cemented tungsten carbide. At then only

Cleaning Up Nuclear Waste Sites

Scientists believe that using gold-palladium nanoparticles may have an impact on other toxic waste sites, such as the Hanford Nuclear Waste Site located in the southeastern part of Washington State. The site, near the Columbia River, contains nuclear waste material since the end of World War II. Many environmental activists are concerned that the waste will get into the groundwater. So, maybe a new kind of treatment method using nanoparticles could play a role in preventing the spread of the nuclear wastes into the groundwater.

Building from the Bottom

Among the applications of nanotechnology that some researchers consider 'science fiction', while others are actively attempting to implement, are enhancements to human memory, physical strength, and other characteristics. Though usually framed as attempts to monitor or repair ailments or disabilities such as Parkinson's disease or genetic abnormalities, some of these technologies can simultaneously be used to control or enhance particular human characteristics in 'normal' humans as well. These possibilities raise many of the same issues as stem cell research and other aspects of biotechnology defining the boundary between treatment and change, establishing common understandings of what counts as 'human' and 'natural', the rights and needs of the ailing and their families versus broad social interests in establishing clear guidelines that a broad mainstream of society can support, the role of religion and morality in public life and in the governance of science, and so on. As with so...

Global Suppression Agreements

In a more promising approach, we could apply local pressure for the negotiation of a verifiable, worldwide ban. A similar strategy might have a chance in the control of nuclear weapons. But stopping nanotechnology and artificial intelligence would pose problems of a different order, for at least two reasons. First, these technologies are less well-defined than nuclear weapons because current nuclear technology demands certain isotopes of rare metals, it is distinct from other activities. It can be defined and (in principle) banned. But modern biochemistry leads in small steps to nanotechnology, and modern computer technology leads in small steps to AI. No line defines a natural stopping point. And since each small advance will bring medical, military, and economic benefits, how could we negotiate a worldwide agreement on where to stop Second, these technologies are more potent than nuclear weapons because reactors and weapons systems are fairly large, inspection could limit the size...

Global Suppression by Force

If peaceful agreements won't work, one might consider using military force to suppress dangerous advances. But because of verification problems, military pressure alone would not be enough. To suppress advances by force would instead require that one power conquer and occupy hostile powers 1 armed with nuclear weapons-hardly a safe policy. Further, the conquering power would itself be a major technological force with massive military power and a demonstrated willingness to use it. Could this power then be trusted to suppress its own advances And even if so, could it be trusted to maintain unending, omnipresent vigilance over the whole world If not, then threats will eventually emerge in secret, and in a world where open work on

Could Molecular Machines Revolutionize Technology or even Selfreplicate to Threaten Terrestrial Life

Fukuyama, in his book Our Posthuman Future 7 (primarily a rational analysis of ethical issues of genetic engineering), casually links nuclear weapons and nuclear energy perceived as dangerous from the start to nanotechnology -that is, molecular-scale self-replicating machines capable of reproducing out of control, and destroying their creators. Both categories, he says (p. 8) are threats easiest to deal with because they are so obvious. The answer for nuclear weapons and nanotechnology, according to Fukuyama 7 , is strict control on an international basis. Fukuyama, dismissing nuclear power and nanotechnology as being taken care of by strict control, goes on to consider genetics and biotechnology in careful detail. From the point of view of nanophysics, a link of nuclear weapons and nanotechnology is ludicrous. There is no particular danger in small-sized particles of matter. Fear of nanotechnology is not justified. Such fears appear to be based on the imagined, fallacious, but...

Department of Science Technology and Society University of Virginia

Some 26 to 32 percent of NNI funds are devoted to achieving military ends. Specific projects include pulse-energy projectile weapons that seek to inflict severe pain from a distance, radar-resistant materials for use in unpiloted vehicles, sensors to detect biological and chemical toxins, technologies that extend the physical abilities of the soldier, and composite fabrics that can resist chemical and biological agents. These projects are based on the widely held notion that the nation is at risk from biological, chemical, radiological, and nuclear weapons. They also reflect the fact that as a nation, we feel vulnerable to destruction from any direction by myriad forces. The ultimate goal is to reduce casualties among our soldiers while ensuring swifter and more efficient destruction and death for others, that is, to become the most powerful force on the planet. From 2001 forward, an interdisciplinary team of social scientists at North Carolina State University has conducted several...

Tactics for the Assembler Breakthrough

Using limited assemblers of this sort, people will be able to make as much as they want of whatever they want, subject to limits built into the machines. If none is programmed to make nuclear weapons, none will if none is programmed to make dangerous replicators, none will. If some are programmed to make houses, cars, computers, toothbrushes, and whatnot, then these products can become cheap and abundant. Machines built by limited assemblers will enable us to open space, heal the biosphere, and repair human cells. Limited assemblers can bring almost unlimited wealth to the people of the world.

Department Of Defense

Since the mid-1990s, DOD identified nanoscience as a strategic research area that would require a substantial amount of basic research funding on a long-term basis. The potential of nanotechnology applications will impact many areas for future warfighting. Some of these areas include chemical and biological warfare defense, a reduction in the weight of warfighting equipment, high-performance information technology, and uninhabited vehicles and miniature satellites.

Micro Energy and Chemical Systems

For heat transfer applications, example technologies include compact, high performance heat exchangers for thermal management and waste heat recuperation. Microscale combustion systems have been developed which take advantage of microchannel heat transfer to produce extremely compact high flux combustion systems. This technology can be used within compact heating and cooling schemes or for compact power generation or propulsion. Mechanically-constrained ultra thin film gas absorption and desorption has been used to reduce the size of absorption-cycle heat pumps and gas absorbers by a factor of 5 to 10. The application of compact heat pumps to microelectronics cooling could significantly reduce heat dissipation needs (Kawano et al. 1998 Little 1990). It is estimated that distributed, compact industrial heat pumps could improve building heating and cooling costs by 25 by eliminating ducting and heat pump cycling losses. Compact heat-actuated heat pumps could provide cooling for an...

Committee Biographies

Paul Schaudies is an assistant vice president and division manager of the biological and chemical defense division at Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). He is a nationally recognized expert in the fields of biological and chemical warfare defense and has served on numerous national level advisory panels for the Defense Intelligence Agency, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, and the Department of Energy. He has 14 years' bench research experience managing laboratories at Walter Reed, at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, and as a visiting scientist at the National Cancer Institute. He served for 13 years on active duty with the Army Medical Service Corps and separated from service at the rank of lieutenant colonel-select. Dr. Schaudies spent 4 years with the Defense Intelligence Agency as collections manager for biological and chemical defense technologies. As such, he initiated numerous intra-agency collaborations that resulted in accelerated...

Sensor System Engineering Insights on Improving Human Cognition and Communication

If one reviews the evolution of cognitive and communication enhancement for the dismounted soldier during the last several decades, improvements in equipment external to the soldier and the human-machine interface predominate. For example, Raytheon is developing uncooled infrared imagers for enhanced night vision, a tactical visualization module to enable the visualization of a tactical situation by providing realtime video, imagery, maps, floor plans, and fly-through video on demand, and GPS and antenna systems integrated with the helmet or body armor. Other external improvements being developed by the Department of Defense include wearable computers, ballistic and laser eye protection, sensors for detection of chemical and biological warfare agents, and smaller, lighter, and more efficient power sources. Improvements that would be inside the individual have been investigated as well, including a study to enhance night vision by replacing the visual chromophores of the human eye with...

Producing continuous yarns

Another more puzzling oversight, which has recently led several authors to bemoan the lack of processes for making continuous yarns from electrospun fibers, is that Formhals actually registered a series of seven patents over a period of ten years between 1934 and 194425,28-33 and that all these patents describe processes and or improvements to processes for the manufacture of continuous yarns from electrospun fibers. Since the youngest of these patents is more than 60 years old, one could speculate that these processes did not really work, which would explain the absence of commercially available electrospun fiber yarns. An alternative explanation could be that, since Formhals lived in Mainz, Germany, and since the last patent application was filed in 1940, the disruption of World War II and the ensuing years simply led to the processes being forgotten. Closer inspection of the patents, aided by more recent knowledge of the electrospinning process, also leads us to believe that at...

The Meltblowing Process

The concept of meltblowing was first demonstrated in 1954 by Van A. Wente, of the Naval Research Laboratories, who was interested in developing fine fibers to collect radioactive particles in the upper atmosphere to monitor worldwide testing of nuclear weapons. In this process, an extruder forced a molten polymer through a row of fine orifices directly into two converging high-velocity streams of heated air or other gas. It was claimed that fibers as small as 0.1 to 1 im can be formed by this method 39,40 . In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Exxon Research launched the first semiworks line, licensing the technology and providing the name for a new process meltblowing Thus, Exxon became the first to demonstrate, patent, publicize, and license the use of Wente's concept as a very practical one-step process to produce unique types of nonwoven webs. Early successful licensees included Kimberly-Clark, Johnson & Johnson, James River, Web Dynamics, and Ergon Nonwovens, followed by many...

Ending the Era of the Internal Combustion Engine

When American troops entered Munich in March 1945, one of the first companies to be seized was Varta, the large battery manufacturer. The company was the manufacturer of batteries and accumulators for the Wehrmacht submarines and for the Luftwaffe during World War II 1 . It is batteries that enable storage and thus the portability of electric power and since electricity is the most useful form of energy available to power technology devices, be they radios or noise .less submarine engines, batteries remain a key technology in virtually every industry. What, then, happened to the electric car (Figure 3.1) However, put simply, the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels in the internal combustion engine (ICE. for land, sea, and air transportation is the largest source of global warming pollution in the world -responsible for 30 of our annual CO2 emissions 2 . Therefore, having to establish priorities in our efforts to stop global warming, the replacement the 150-year-old ICE with new, zero...

Lesson three precautionary principle

Known as a 'better safe than sorry' approach, the precautionary principle is playing a strong role in debates on nuclear safety, greenhouse gas emissions and global climate change, and the safety of genetically modified organisms. It is likely that proponents and regulators of nanotechnology will have to deal with the precautionary principle in explicit ways. The social and scientific uncertainty resulting from innovations in nanotechnology will be significant, and identifying lessons from how the precautionary principle is being applied to biotechnology, may be valuable.

Nanobarcodes to Quickly Identify Biological Weapons

This rapid growth and development in biodetection technology has largely been driven by the emergence of new and deadly infectious diseases and the realization of biological warfare as a new means of terrorism. To address the need for portable, multiplex biodetection systems, a number of immunoassays have been developed. Ongoing work at LLNL is focused on incorporating the assay into a microfluidic device to allow for a portable biosensing system for biological warfare agents. The platform will ultimately enable an affordable and portable multiplex biodetection system for both first responders and clinicians to accurately detect and confirm infectious agents, thus facilitating point-of-care applications.

The Importance Of Effective Export Control Laws In Nanotechnology

In other cases, uncertainty regarding the scope and application of regulations could undermine national security. If companies find loopholes in the regulations, nanoscale materials, devices, and systems that could be used for military purposes might wind up in the wrong hands. The risks posed by underregulation of export controls are illustrated by tracing the origin of Iraq's military buildup. In the 1990s, American exporters shipped advanced computing systems to Iraq that were used in Saddam Hussein's nuclear weapons program.56 Similarly, fiber optic technology that American companies sold to China was later installed by Chinese engineers in Iraq to improve Iraq's air defense system.57

Present and future applications of nanotechnology

Nanotechnology would probably not be worth US 847 million of federal funding if it only made incremental improvements in consumer products. Many of the high impact applications are in the areas of defence national security, medicine and energy. In FY 2003, the Department of Defense (DOD) surpassed all other Federal agencies with a US 243 million investment in nanotechnology research and development (FY 2003 Budget Request).3 DOD is interested in using nanotechnology to advance both offensive and defensive military objectives. DOD's primary areas of interest are information acquisition, processing, storage and display (nanoelectronics) materials performance and affordability (nanomaterials) and chemical and biological warfare defence (nanosensors). The integration of several of these functionalities into a single technology is the ultimate goal of the Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies, an interdepartmental research centre established in 2002 by the US Army at the Massachusetts...

The Future of Nanotechnology

By way of example, William Coblentz of the National Bureau of Standards in Washington, D.C., first examined and documented the relationship between the chemical structure of molecules and infrared absorption spectra in 1905.I13. Yet even with the substantial knowledge base that grew from this original work, the first commercial infrared spectrophotometer (an instrument that measures light absorption as a function of wavelength) was not produced until 1942, when it was driven by demand the urgent need during World War II to produce synthetic rubber. Commercial progress follows as technology evolves from the science to fulfill unmet needs in the marketplace. In the case of nanotechnology it will be evolutionary and ubiquitous, and not revolutionary and spontaneous.

Controversies the wow to yuck trajectory

Its technology interests include biotechnology, biological warfare and human genomics with a special emphasis on genetically modified organisms such as the so-called Terminator seed. This Monsanto product is engineered to produce sterile plants, thus ensuring yearly repeat sales to farmers who would otherwise harvest the fertile seeds for subsequent plantings. ETC Group's interest in nanotechnology dates back to early 2001 with the publication of a report that lays out the perils of advancing technologies such as biotechnology and nanotechnology. The objections of this group to emerging technologies seem to be based less in concerns about technology gone awry, for example the grey goo scenario, than in the technologies' capacity to increase the gap between rich and poor, and developed and developing nations, through control over the means of production and distribution of the technologies (Mooney, 2001). This type of criticism is not levelled exclusively at nanotech-nology but seems...

Vision for the Converging Technologies

Clarke, and Carl Sagan did an amazing amount to convince humans that science and technology were important. Vannevar Bush understood it at the beginning of the Second World War. But if those who know refuse to explain in understandable language, then they should quit griping about the ignorance of those who don't know. Science can't have it both ways. You can't say, This is the most important secular venture of mankind it takes an enormous amount of energy to master it, and by the way, I won't tell you about it in a language you can understand. Scientists have an obligation as citizens to go out and explain what they need and what their work will mean. The predecessor to the Internet, ARPANET, wouldn't have occurred without two things one was ARPA itself which had the funding, and the second was a vision that we should not be decapitated by a nuclear strike. People tend to forget that the capacity to surf on the Web in order to buy things is a...

List of Contributors

Michael Mehta is professor of sociology and chair, Sociology of Biotechnology Program, University of Saskatchewan, Canada. He specializes in science, technology and society. Interests include risk perception and communication on biotechnology, nuclear safety, blood safety, endocrine modulators and nanotechnology. His academic background includes a BA in psychology, a Masters in environmental studies, a PhD in sociology and post-doctoral training in policy studies. He has held academic appointments at York University (Faculty of Environmental Studies) and Queen's University (School of Policy Studies and School of Environmental Studies), and has taught graduate and undergraduate students for more than 15 years. He is a co-founder of the Environmental Studies Association of Canada (ESAC).

D A Counterargument

Indeed, there is a famous example of this approach working. During World War n, the Manhattan Project built a gas-diffusion separation plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Its job was to separate the light isotope of uranium from the heavy one, which no plant had ever been built to do before. The principle upon which it ran was new. The gas was corrosive, and the plant had to resist it on every surface that touched the gas. In addition, the gas and the plant around it were so radioactive, repairs or rebuilding would be extremely difficult. There was no time to build a small-scale pilot plant.

Evolving Technology

Consider for a moment the hybrid ancestry of the space shuttle. On its aircraft side, it descends from the aluminum jets of the sixties, which themselves sprang from a line stretching back through the aluminum prop planes of World War II, to the wood-and-cloth biplanes of World War I, to the motorized gliders of the Wright brothers, to toy gliders and kites. On its rocket side, the shuttle traces back to Moon rockets, to military missiles, to last century's artillery rockets (and the rocket's red glare ), and finally to fireworks and toys. This aircraft rocket hybrid flies, and by varying components and designs, aerospace engineers will evolve still better ones.


In 1952, the post-World War II economic boom stirred the American imagination. A new American president was elected and the nation's bright prospects for a higher standard of living were embodied in its burgeoning plastics industry. Americans celebrated Tupperware that could keep food fresh longer and Formica that was a lighter and more durable alternative to wood for many household construction projects. Today, plastics is a 393 billion industry that has forever changed the foods we eat, the cars we drive, the homes we live in, and the air we breathe.


Feynman's interest in computing can be traced tothe World War II Manhattan Project at Los Alamos, where his application of innovative parallel computating methods tripled the throughput of arduous atomic bomb calculations perfomed by legions of calculation-punching staff who were the computers of the day. Fifteen years later at the time of Plenty of Room,

Local Suppression

Where nuclear weapons are concerned, arguments can be made for unilateral disarmament and nonviolent (or at least non-nuclear) resistance. Nuclear weapons can be used to smash military establishments and spread terror, but they cannot be used to occupy territory or rule people not directly. Nuclear weapons have failed to suppress guerrilla warfare and social unrest, so a strategy of disarmament and resistance makes some degree of sense.

Military Power

Intelligent systems technologies have the potential to revolutionize the art of war. The eventual impact on military science may be as great as the invention of gunpowder, the airplane, or nuclear weapons. Intelligent weapons systems are already beginning to emerge. Cruise missiles, smart bombs, and unmanned reconnaissance aircraft have been deployed and used in combat with positive effect. Unmanned ground vehicles and computer-augmented command and control systems are currently being developed and will soon be deployed. Unmanned undersea vehicles are patrolling the oceans collecting data and gathering intelligence. These are but the vanguard of a whole new generation of military systems that will become possible as soon as intelligent systems engineering becomes a mature discipline (Gourley 2000).

With Folded Hands

Another major advantage for space-filling fog is safety. In your car (or its nanotech descendant) fog forms a dynamic form-fitting cushion that protects you better than any nylon-fiber seat belt. An appropriately built house filled with fog could even protect its inhabitants from the effects of a nuclear weapon within 95 percent or so of its lethal blast area.

DOD Impact

A) Chemical and biological warfare defense. Nanotechnology will lead to the development of biochemical sensors to monitor the environment in the battlefield. Chemical and biological warfare agents must be detected at very low levels in real time. Nanotechnology will dramatically improve detection sensitivity and selectivity, even to the point of responding to a few molecules of the biochemical agent. Nanostructures are showing the potential for decontamination and neutralization as well.


Enhancement are excellent spectroscopic tags for detection protocols. These core-shell nanoparticles have a metallic core as an optical enhancer, a reporter molecule as a spectroscopic tag, and an inert shell for stabilization and conjugation. These find better applications in the sensing of biological warfare agents. Core-shell nanoparticles having a metallic core and an organic monolayer shell in ionic liquids have interesting applications such as optical sensors for anions, which work on the basis of aggregation-induced color changes. Thin films membranes of pre-engineered gold nanoparticles derivatized with thiolate shells with carboxylate endings and a polymer, poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate), are novel systems for chemical biological sensing applications. Core-shell nanomaterials with gold alloy semiconductor nanocrystal cores and functional polymer shells, in solution state and thin films, have been studied as model systems for chemical and electrochemical sensing. Systems...

Conflict or peace

It has been estimated that all the wars of the 20th century killed 111 million people, both combatants and civilians (Pirages, 2005, p43). Although this is a tiny fraction of the number of people killed by communicable diseases, it is chastening to think that this is what human beings chose to do to each other. When one adds the numbers that war has injured and psychologically damaged, tortured and bereaved and then adds the victims of other kinds of conflict less than war, the ethical condition of humanity has a painful clarity. Mass destruction weapons, the product of the nuclear technological wave, are still an enormous threat to human life. One may better understand the ethical blockage to progress on nuclear non-proliferation when the parties with large nuclear weapons arsenals (USA, UK, France and others) insist on small countries not

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