Contents

4.1 Introduction 44

4.2 Characteristics of the Structure and Pharmacokinetic Properties of the Nanocarrier 44

4.2.1 Linear Polymers 44

4.2.1.1 Their History and Characteristics 44

4.2.1.2 Pharmacokinetic Properties and Applications of Drug Carriers 45

4.2.2 Polymeric Micelles 46

4.2.2.1 Their History and Characteristics 46

4.2.2.2 Pharmacokinetic Properties and Applications as Drug Carriers 46

4.2.3 Dendrimers 47

4.2.3.1 Their History and Characteristics 47

4.2.3.2 Pharmacokinetic Properties and Applications as Drug Carriers 47

4.2.4 Liposomes 48

4.2.4.1 Their History and Characteristics 48

4.2.4.2 Pharmacokinetic Properties and Applications of Drug Carriers 49

4.3 Pharmacokinetic Analysis and Tissue Distribution Characteristics of Macromolecules 50

4.3.1 Effect of Size on the Pharmacokinetic Properties 51

4.3.2 Effect of Charge on the Pharmacokinetic Properties 51

4.3.3 Effect of Modification for Cell-Selective Delivery 51

4.4 Nanocarriers for Gene Delivery 51

4.4.1 Polymers 52

4.4.2 Liposomes 52

4.4.2.1 Cationic Liposomes for Lung Targeting 52

4.4.2.2 Mannose Liposomes for Liver NPC Targeting 53

4.4.2.3 Galactose Liposomes for Liver PC Targeting 53

4.4.2.4 Folate Receptor-Mediated Targeting 54

References 54

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