16.1 Targeted Drug Delivery: An Introduction 289

16.2 Nucleic Acid Ligands (Aptamers): From Discovery to Practice 291

16.2.1 Physicochemical Properties of Aptamers 292

16.2.2 Methods for Isolation of Aptamers 293

16.2.3 Examples of Aptamers for Targeted Delivery 294 Alpha-v Beta-3 294 Human Epidermal Growth Factor-3 295 Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen 295 Nucleolin 295 Sialyl Lewis X 295 Cytotoxic T-Cell Antigen-4 296 Fibrinogen-Like Domain of Tenascin-C 296 Pigpen 296

16.3 Aptamer-Nanoparticle Conjugates for Targeted Cancer Therapy 296

16.3.1 Properties of Nanoparticles for Conjugation to Aptamers 297 Size of Nanoparticles 297 Polymers for Synthesis of Nanoparticles 298 Charge of Nanoparticles 298 Surface Modification of Nanoparticles 299

16.3.2 Conjugation Strategies for Nanoparticle-Aptamer Conjugates 300

16.4 Aptamer-Drug Conjugates for Targeted Cancer Therapy 301

16.5 Aptamer-Nanoparticle Conjugates for Protein Detection 304

16.5.1 Aptamer-QD Conjugates for the Detection of Proteins 304

16.5.2 Aptamer-Gold-Nanoparticle Conjugates for the Detection of Proteins 305

16.6 Conclusion 306

Acknowledgments 306

References 306

With advances in nanotechnology, it is becoming increasingly possible to combine specialized delivery vehicles and targeting approaches to develop highly selective and effective cancer

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