Contents

15.1 Cancer Therapy 252

15.2 Nanoparticles as Drug Delivery Systems 252

15.2.1 Polymeric Nanoparticles 253

15.2.1.1 Nanoparticles Prepared by the Polymerization Process 253

15.2.1.1.1 Dispersion Polymerization 253

15.2.1.1.1 Emulsion Polymerization 254

15.2.1.2 Poly(Alkyl Cyanoacrylate) Nanoparticles 254

15.2.1.3 Poly(Alkyl Cyanoacrylate) Nanocapsules 256

15.2.2 Loading of Drugs to Poly(Alkyl Cyanoacrylate) Nanoparticles 256

15.2.3 Characterization of Nanoparticles 258

15.2.3.1 Physicochemical Characterization 258

15.2.3.2 Degradation of Poly(Alkyl Cyanoacrylate) Nanoparticles 260

15.2.3.3 Influence of Enzymes on the Stability of Poly(Alkyl Cyanoacrylate) Nanoparticles 260

15.2.3.4 Drug Release from Poly(Alkyl Cyanoacrylate) Nanoparticles 261

15.2.4 In Vivo Distribution of Poly(Alkyl Cyanoacrylate) Nanoparticles 261

15.2.4.1 Surface Modification to Alter Biodistribution 264

15.2.5 Toxicity of Polyalkyl Cyanoacrylate Nanoparticles 264

15.2.5.1 Toxicity of Drugs Associated with Poly(Alkyl Cyanoacrylate)

Nanoparticles 266

15.2.6 Drug Delivery in Cancer with Poly(Alkyl Cyanoacrylate) Nanoparticles 266

15.2.6.1 Targeting to Cancer Cells and Tissues 266

15.2.6.2 Drug Delivery to Resistant Tumor Cells 268

15.2.6.3 Drug Delivery to Hepatocellular Carcinomas 272

15.2.6.4 Drug Delivery to Brain Tumors 274

15.2.6.5 Drug Delivery to Breast Cancer 275

15.2.6.6 Drug Delivery to Lymphatic Carcinomas 276

15.2.6.7 Drug Delivery to Gastric Carcinomas 276

15.2.6.8 Chemoembolization Using Alkylcyanoacrylates 277

15.2.6.9 Delivery of Peptide Anti-Cancer Drugs 278

15.3 Conclusions 280

References 280

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