In addition to traditional drugs, pDNA has recently also been used as a drug for cancer therapy; for example, antigen-encoding pDNA has a potential application in DNA vaccine therapy for cancer. Moreover, new techniques to inhibit target gene expression through transcriptional regulation without any changes in the functions of other genes using synthetic oligonucleotides such as antisense DNA, decoy oligonucleotide, and siRNA have been also considered as a novel anti-tumor chemotherapy. However, because pDNA and synthetic oligonucleotides are easily degraded or metabolized, there is no cell selectivity, and enough transgene expression or inhibition of target gene expression for effective therapy could not be achieved by the administration of naked pDNA or oligonucleotides. Therefore, for effective therapy, it is essential to develop a novel carrier that makes it possible to deliver such drugs to the target tissue or cells.
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