Plga Nanoparticles For Photodynamic Therapy

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising new treatment modality48 which involves administration of a photosensitizing drug.49 Upon illumination at a suitable wavelength, it induces a photochemical reaction resulting in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can kill tumor cells directly as well as the tumor-associated vasculature, leading to tumor infarction. Targeting is essential in PDT as singlet oxygen is extremely reactive. Several strategies such as chemical conjugation with various water-soluble polymers and encapsulation into colloidal carriers have been considered for the parenteral administration of photosensitizers. These colloidal carriers include liposomes, emulsions, polymeric micelles and nanoparticles. PLGA nanoparticles were evaluated for PDT using meso-tetra(4-hydroxyphenyl) porphyrin as photosensitizer.50 Vargas et al. have encapsulated porphyrin in PLGA nanoparticles and demonstrated enhanced photodynamic activity against mammary tumor cells than free drug.51 Colloidal carrier associated with photosensitizer showed enhanced photodynamic efficiency and selectivity of tumor targeting as compared with dye administered in homogenous aqueous solution.52,53 Recently, Saxena et al. have formulated PLGA nanoparticles loaded with indocyanine green (ICG) and determined their biodistribution in mice. The results demonstrated that the nanoparticle formulation significantly increased the ICG concentration and circulation time in plasma as well as the ICG uptake, accumulation and retention in various organs as compared to ICG solution.54 Such a formulation can be explored in tumor-diagnosis as well as for PDT.

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