Proteomics and Toxicogenomics

Proteomics and toxicogenomics are useful tools for identifying the mechanisms underlying toxicity.127 Using gel electrophoresis in combination with MS identification, or gene microarray technology, the expression of specific pathway-responsive genes, such as Phase-II enzymes for oxidative stress, or cytokines for inflammation, can be identified. The delineation of these toxic pathways could help further refine the in vitro and in vivo study of nanomaterials, potentially leading to the development of novel biomarkers that could then be used in clinical and occupational toxicology studies. Proteomic and genomic research on biomedically relevant nanomaterials is presently underway, using a series of human hepatocyte, kidney, and immunological primary cells.

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