References

1. Furumoto, K., Nagayama, S., Ogawara, K., Takakura, Y., Hashida, M., Higaki, K., and Kimura, T., Hepatic uptake of negatively charged particles in rats: Possible involvement of serum proteins in recognition by scavenger receptor, Journal of Controlled Release, 97, 133-141, 2004.

2. Oberdorster, G., Toxicology of ultrafine particles: In vivo studies, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series A—Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences, 358, 2719-2739, 2000.

3. Ogawara, K., Yoshida, M., Higaki, K., Kimura, T., Shiraishi, K., Nishikawa, M., Takakura, Y., and Hashida, M., Hepatic uptake of polystyrene microspheres in rats: Effect of particle size on intrahe-patic distribution, Journal of Controlled Release, 59, 15-22, 1999.

4. Ogawara, K., Yoshida, M., Kubo, J., Nishikawa, M., Takakura, Y., Hashida, M., Higaki, K., and Kimura, T., Mechanisms of hepatic disposition of polystyrene microspheres in rats: Effects of serum depend on the sizes of microspheres, Journal of Controlled Release, 61, 241-250, 1999.

5. Fenart, L., Casanova, A., Dehouck, B., Duhem, C., Slupek, S., Cecchelli, R., and Betbeder, D., Evaluation of effect of charge and lipid coating on ability of 60-nm nanoparticles to cross an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier, Journal of Pharmacological and Experimental Therapeutics, 291, 1017-1022, 1999.

6. Brown, D. M., Wilson, M. R., MacNee, W., Stone, V., and Donaldson, K., Size-dependent proinflammatory effects of ultrafine polystyrene particles: a role for surface area and oxidative stress in the enhanced activity of ultrafines, Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 175, 191-199, 2001.

7. Donaldson, K. and Tran, C. L., Inflammation caused by particles and fibers, Inhalation Toxicology, 14, 5-27, 2002.

8. Gref, R., Luck, M., Quellec, P., Marchand, M., Dellacherie, E., Harnisch, S., Blunk, T., and Muller, R. H., 'Stealth' corona-core nanoparticles surface modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG): Influences of the corona (PEG chain length and surface density) and of the core composition on phagocytic uptake and plasma protein adsorption, Colloids and Surfaces B, 18, 301-313, 2000.

9. Leroux,J. C., Gravel, P., Balant, L., Volet, B., Anner, B.M., Allemann, E., Doelker, E., andGurny, R., Internalization of poly(D,L-Lactic Acid) nanoparticles by isolated human-leukocytes and analysis of plasma-proteins adsorbed onto the particles, Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, 28,471-481, 1994.

10. Reynolds, L. J. and Richards, R. J., Can toxicogenomics provide information on the bioreactivity of diesel exhaust particles? Toxicology, 165, 145-152, 2001.

11. Oberdorster, G., Oberdorster, E., and Oberdorster, J., Nanotoxicology: An emerging discipline evolving from studies of ultrafine particles, Environmental Health Perspectives, 113, 823-839, 2005.

12. Van de Coevering, R., Kreiter, R., Cardinali, F., van Koten, G., Nierengarten, J. F., and Gebbink, R., An octa-cationic core-shell dendrimer as a molecular template for the assembly of anionic fullerene derivatives, Tetrahedron Letters, 46, 3353-3356, 2005.

Tomalia, D. A., Naylor, A. M., and Goddard, W. A., Starburst dendrimers—molecular-level control of size shape, surface-chemistry, topology, and flexibility from atoms to macroscopic matter, Angewandte Chemie-International Edition in English, 29, 138-175, 1990.

Tomalia, D. A., Baker, H., Dewald, J., Hall, M., Kallos, G., Martin, S., Roeck, J., Ryder, J., and Smith, P., A new class of polymers—starburst-dendritic macromolecules, Polymer Journal, 17, 117-132, 1985.

Islam, M. T., Majoros, I. J., and Baker, J. R., HPLC analysis of PAMAM dendrimer based multifunctional devices, Journal of Chromatography B, 822, 21-26, 2005.

Binnig, G., Quate, C. F., and Gerber, C., Atomic force microscope, Physical Review Letters, 56, 930-933, 1986.

Mecke, A., Lee, D. K., Ramamoorthy, A., Orr, B. G., and Holl, M. M. B., Synthetic and natural polycationic polymer nanoparticles interact selectively with fluid-phase domains of DMPC lipid bilayers, Langmuir, 21, 8588-8590, 2005.

Mecke, A., Majoros, I. J., Patri, A. K., Baker, J. R., Holl, M. M. B., and Orr, B. G., Lipid bilayer disruption by polycationic polymers: The roles of size and chemical functional group, Langmuir, 21, 10348-10354, 2005.

Patri, A. K., Myc, A., Beals, J., Thomas, T. P., Bander, N. H., and Baker, J. R., Synthesis and in vitro testing of J591 antibody-dendrimer conjugates for targeted prostate cancer therapy, Bioconjugate Chemistry, 15, 1174-1181, 2004.

Malik, N., Wiwattanapatapee, R., Klopsch, R., Lorenz, K., Frey, H., Weener, J. W., Meijer, E. W., Paulus, W., and Duncan, R., Dendrimers: Relationship between structure and biocompatibility in vitro, and preliminary studies on the biodistribution of I-125-labelled polyamidoamine dendrimers in vivo, Journal of Controlled Release, 65, 133-148, 2000.

Hawley, A. E., Davis, S. S., and Illum, L., Targeting of colloids to lymph nodes: Influence of lymphatic physiology and colloidal characteristics, Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 17, 129-148, 1995.

Stolnik, S., Illum, L., and Davis, S. S., Long circulating microparticulate drug carriers, Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 16, 195-214, 1995.

Ishida, O., Maruyama, K., Sasaki, K., and Iwatsuru, M., Size-dependent extravasation and interstitial localization of polyethyleneglycol liposomes in solid tumor-bearing mice, International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 190, 49-56, 1999.

Maeda, H., Wu, J., Sawa, T., Matsumura, Y., and Hori, K., Tumor vascular permeability and the EPR effect in macromolecular therapeutics: A review, Journal of Controlled Release, 65, 271-284, 2000. Brigger, I., Dubernet, C., and Couvreur, P., Nanoparticles in cancer therapy and diagnosis, Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 54, 631-651, 2002.0

Kawasaki, E. S. and Player, A., Nanotechnology, nanomedicine, and the development of new, effective therapies for cancer, Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, 1, 101-109, 2005.

Torchilin, V. P., Drug targeting, European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 11, S81-S91, 2000. Prosa, T. J., Bauer, B. J., and Amis, E. J., From stars to spheres: A SAXS analysis of dilute dendrimer solutions, Macromolecules, 34, 4897-4906, 2001.

Nisato, G., Ivkov, R., and Amis, E. J., Structure of charged dendrimer solutions as seen by small-angle neutron scattering, Macromolecules, 32, 5895-5900, 1999.

Tsay, J. M., Doose, S., and Weiss, S., Rotational and translational diffusion of peptide-coated CdSe/CdS/ZnS nanorods studied by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 128, 1639-1647, 2006.

Calabretta, M., Jamison, J. A., Falkner, J. C., Liu, Y., Yuhas, B. D., Matthews, K. S., and Colvin, V. L., Analytical ultracentrifugation for characterizing nanocrystals and their bioconjugates, Nano Letters, 5, 963-967, 2005.

Giddings, J. C., Field-flow fractionation: Analysis of macromolecular, colloidal, and particulate materials, Science, 260, 1456-1465, 1993.

Lockman, P. R., Koziara, J. M., Mumper, R. J., and Allen, D. D., Nanoparticle surface charges alter blood-brain barrier integrity and permeability, Journal of Drug Targeting, 12, 635-641, 2004.

34. Kukowska-Latallo, J. F., Candido, K. A., Cao, Z., Nigavekar, S. S., Majoros, I. J., Thomas, T. P., Balogh, L. P., Khan, M. K., and Baker, J. R., Nanoparticle targeting of anticancer drug improves therapeutic response in animal model of human epithelial cancer, Cancer Research, 65, 5317-5324, 2005.

35. Nel, A., Atmosphere: Enhanced: Air pollution-related illness: Effects of particles, Science, 308, 804-806, 2005.

36. Brown, D. M., Stone, V., Findlay, P., MacNee, W., and Donaldson, K., Increased inflammation and intracellular calcium caused by ultrafine carbon black is independent of transition metals or other soluble components, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 57, 685-691, 2000.

37. Derfus, A. M., Chan, W. C. W., and Bhatia, S. N., Probing the cytotoxicity of semiconductor quantum dots, Nano Letters, 4, 11-18, 2004.

38. Joo, S. H.,Feitz, A. J., and Waite, T. D., Oxidative degradation ofthecarbothioate herbicide, molinate, using nanoscale zero-valent iron, Environmental Science & Technology, 38, 2242-2247, 2004.

39. Nagaveni, K., Sivalingam, G., Hegde, M. S., and Madras, G., Photocatalytic degradation of organic compounds over combustion-synthesized nano-TiO2, Environmental Science & Technology, 38, 1600-1604, 2004.

40. Oberdorster, E., Manufactured nanomaterials (fullerenes, C60) induce oxidative stress in the brain of juvenile largemouth bass, Environmental Health Perspectives, 112, 1058-1062, 2004.

41. Rancan, F., Rosan, S., Boehm, F., Cantrell, A., Brellreich, M., Schoenberger, H., Hirsch, A., and Moussa, F., Cytotoxicity and photocytotoxicity of a dendritic C(60) mono-adduct and a malonic acid C(60) tris-adduct on Jurkat cells, Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B, 67, 157-162, 2002.

42. Sayes, C., Fortner, J., Guo, W., Lyon, D., Boyd, A., Ausman, K., Tao, Y., Sitharaman, B., Wilson, L., Hughes, J., West, J., and Colvin, V. L., The differential cytotoxicity of water-soluble fullerenes, Nano Letters, 4, 1881-1887, 2004.

43. Wilson, M. R., Lightbody, J. H., Donaldson, K., Sales, J., and Stone, V., Interactions between ultrafine particles and transition metals in vivo and in vitro, Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 184, 172-179, 2002.

44. Yamakoshi, Y., Umezawa, N., Ryu, A., Arakane, K., Miyata, N., Goda, Y., Masumizu, T., and Nagano, T., Active oxygen species generated from photoexcited fullerene (C60) as potential medicines: O2-* versus 1O2, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 125, 12803-12809, 2003.

45. Sonvico, F., Mornet, S., Vasseur, S., Dubernet, C., Jaillard, D., Degrouard, J., Hoebeke, J., Duguet, E., Colombo, P., and Couvreur, P., Folate-conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles for solid tumor targeting as potential specific magnetic hyperthermia mediators: synthesis, physicochemical characterization, and in vitro experiments, Bioconjugate Chemistry, 16, 1181-1188, 2005.

46. Thomas, T. P., Patri, A. K., Myc, A., Myaing, M. T., Ye, J. Y., Norris, T. B., and Baker, J. R., In vitro targeting of synthesized antibody-conjugated dendrimer nanoparticles, Biomacromolecules, 5, 2269-2274, 2004.

47. Kobayashi, H. and Brechbiel, M. W., Nano-sized MRI contrast agents with dendrimer cores, Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 57, 2271-2286, 2005.

48. Shi, X., Lesniak, W., Islam, M. T., MuNiz, M. C., Balogh, L. P., and Baker, J. J. R., Comprehensive characterization of surface-functionalized poly(amidoamine) dendrimers with acetamide, hydroxyl, and carboxyl groups, Colloids and Surfaces A, 272, 139-150, 2006.

49. Shi, X., Majoros, I. J., Patri, A. K., Bi, X., Islam, M. T., Desai, A., Ganser, T. R., and Baker, J. R., Molecular heterogeneity analysis of poly(amidoamine) dendrimer-based mono- and multifunctional nanodevices by capillary electrophoresis, Analyst, 131, 374-381, 2006.

50. Ferrari, M., Cancer nanotechnology: Opportunities and challenges, Nature Reviews Cancer, 5, 161-171, 2005.

51. Patri, A. K., Majoros, I. J., and Baker, J. R., Dendritic polymer macromolecular carriers for drug delivery, Current Opinion in Chemical Biology, 6, 466-471, 2002.

52. Portney, N. G. and Ozkan, M., Nano-oncology: drug delivery, imaging, and sensing, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 384, 620-630, 2006.

53. Patri, A. K., Kukowska-Latallo, J. F., and Baker, J. R., Targeted drug delivery with dendrimers: Comparison of the release kinetics of covalently conjugated drug and non-covalent drug inclusion complex, Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 57, 2203-2214, 2005.

Gillies, E. R. and Frechet, J. M., pH-responsive copolymer assemblies for controlled release of doxorubicin, Bioconjugate Chemistry, 16, 361-368, 2005.

Brucher, E., Kinetic stabilities of gadolinium(III) chelates used as MRI contrast agents, Topics in Current Chemistry, 221, 103-122, 2002.

Hardman, R., A toxicologic review of quantum dots: Toxicity depends on physicochemical and environmental factors, Environmental Health Perspectives, 114, 165-172, 2006. Derfus, A. M., Chan, W. C. W., and Bhatia, S. N., Probing the cytotoxicity of semiconductor quantum dots, Nano Letters, 4, 11-18, 2004.

Dubertret, B., Skourides, P., Norris, D. J., Noireaux, V., Brivanlou, A. H., and Libchaber, A., In vivo imaging of quantum dots encapsulated in phospholipid micelles, Science, 298, 1759-1762, 2002. Hoshino, A., Hanaki, K., Suzuki, K., and Yamamoto, K., Applications of T-lymphoma labeled with fluorescent quantum dots to cell tracing markers in mouse body, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 314, 46-53, 2004.

Voura, E. B., Jaiswal, J. K., Mattoussi, H., and Simon, S. M., Tracking metastatic tumor cell extravasation with quantum dot nanocrystals and fluorescence emission-scanning microscopy, Nature Medicine, 10, 993-998, 2004.

Ueng, T. H., Kang, J. J., Wang, H. W., Cheng, Y. W., and Chiang, L. Y., Suppression of microsomal cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation by full-

erenol, a polyhydroxylated fullerene C60, Toxicology Letters, 93, 29-37, 1997.

Shcharbin, D., Jokiel, M., Klajnert, B., and Bryszewska, M., Effect of dendrimers on pure acetyl-

cholinesterase activity and structure, Bioelectrochemistry, 68, 56-59, 2006.

Slikker, W., Andersen, M. E., Bogdanffy, M. S., Bus, J. S., Cohen, S. D., Conolly, R. B., David,

R. M., Doerrer, N. G., Dorman, D. C., Gaylor, D. W., Hattis, D., Rogers, J. M., Setzer, R. W.,

Swenberg, J. A., and Wallace, K., Dose-dependent transitions in mechanisms of toxicity: Case studies, Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 201, 226-294, 2004.

Oberdorster, G., Finkelstein, J. N., Johnston, C., Gelein, R., Cox, C., Baggs, R., and Elder, A. C., Acute pulmonary effects of ultrafine particles in rats and mice, Research Report (Health Effects Institute), 5-74, 2000. (disc 75-86)

Bazile, D. V., Ropert, C., Huve, P., Verrecchia, T., Marlard, M., Frydman, A., Veillard, M., and Spenlehauer, G., Body distribution of fully biodegradable [14C]-poly(lactic acid) nanoparticles coated with albumin after parenteral administration to rats, Biomaterials, 13, 1093-1102, 1992. Cagle, D. W., Kennel, S. J., Mirzadeh, S., Alford, J. M., and Wilson, L. J., In vivo studies of fullerene-based materials using endohedral metallofullerene radiotracers, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 96, 5182-5187, 1999. Ogawara, K., Furumoto, K., Takakura, Y., Hashida, M., Higaki, K., and Kimura, T., Surface hydro-phobicity of particles is not necessarily the most important determinant in their in vivo disposition after intravenous administration in rats, Journal of Controlled Release, 77, 191-198, 2001. Nigavekar, S. S., Sung, L. Y., Llanes, M., El-Jawahri, A., Lawrence, T. S., Becker, C. W., Balogh, L., and Khan, M. K., H-3 dendrimer nanoparticle organ/tumor distribution, Pharmaceutical Research, 21, 476-483, 2004.

Ballou, B., Lagerholm, B. C., Ernst, L. A., Bruchez, M. P., and Waggoner, A. S., Noninvasive imaging of quantum dots in mice, Bioconjugate Chemistry, 15, 79-86, 2004. Gharbi, N., Pressac, M., Hadchouel, M., Szwarc, H., Wilson, S. R., and Moussa, F., [60]Fullerene is a powerful antioxidant in vivo with no acute or subacute toxicity, Nano Letters, 5, 2578-2585, 2005. Fernandezurrusuno, R., Fattal, E., Porquet, D., Feger, J., and Couvreur, P., Evaluation of liver toxicological effects induced by polyalkylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles, Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 130, 272-279, 1995.

Roberts, J. C., Bhalgat, M. K., and Zera, R. T., Preliminary biological evaluation of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) starburst dendrimers, Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, 30, 53-65, 1996. Oberdorster, G., Maynard, A., Donaldson, K., Castranova, V., Fitzpatrick, J., Ausman, K., Carter, J., Karn, B., Kreyling, W., Lai, D., Olin, S., Monteiro-Riviere, N., Warheit, D., and Yang, H., Principles for characterizing the potential human health effects from exposure to nanomaterials: elements of a screening strategy, Particle and Fibre Toxicology, 2, 8, 2005.

74. Dierickx, P., Prediction of human acute toxicity by the hep G2/24-hour/total protein assay, with protein measurement by the CBQCA method, Alternatives to Laboratory Animals, 33, 207-213, 2005.

75. Knasmuller, S., Parzefall, W., Sanyal, R., Ecker, S., Schwab, C., Uhl, M., Mersch-Sundermann, V., Williamson, G., Hietsch, G., Langer, T., Darroudi, F., and Natarajan, A. T., Use of metabolically competent human hepatoma cells for the detection of mutagens and antimutagens, Mutation Research, 402, 185-202, 1998.

76. Urani, C., Doldi, M., Crippa, S., and Camatini, M., Human-derived cell lines to study xenobiotic metabolism, Chemosphere, 37, 2785-2795, 1998.

77. Wang, K., Shindoh, H., Inoue, T., and Horii, I., Advantages of in vitro cytotoxicity testing by using primary rat hepatocytes in comparison with established cell lines, Journal of Toxicological Sciences, 27, 229-237, 2002.

78. Gharbi, N., Pressac, M., Tomberli, V., Da Ros, T., Brettreich, M., Hadchouel, M., Arbeille, B., Trivin, F., Ceolin, R., Hirsch, A., Prato, M., Szwarc, H., Bensasson, R., and Moussa, F., In Fullerenes 2000: Functionalized Fullerenes, Maggini, M., Martin, N., and Guldi, D. M., Eds., vol. 9, The Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ, 2000.

79. Lee, C. C., MacKay, J. A., Frechet, J. M., and Szoka, F. C., Designing dendrimers for biological applications, Nature Biotechnology, 23, 1517-1526, 2005.

80. Wang, H., Wang, J., Deng, X., Sun, H., Shi, Z., Gu, Z., Liu, Y., and Zhao, Y., Biodistribution of carbon single-wall carbon nanotubes in mice, Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 4, 1019-1024, 2004.

81. Manil, L., Couvreur, P., and Mahieu, P., Acute renal toxicity of doxorubicin (adriamycin)-loaded cyanoacrylate nanoparticles, Pharmaceutical Research, 12, 85-87, 1995.

82. Manil, L., Davin, J. C., Duchenne, C., Kubiak, C., Foidart, J., Couvreur, P., and Mahieu, P., Uptake of nanoparticles by rat glomerular mesangial cells in-vivo and in-vitro, Pharmaceutical Research, 11, 1160-1165, 1994.

83. Shiohara, A., Hoshino, A., Hanaki, K., Suzuki, K., and Yamamoto, K., On the cyto-toxicity caused by quantum dots, Microbiology and Immunology, 48, 669-675, 2004.

84. Wang, B., Feng, W. Y., Wang, T. C., Jia, G., Wang, M., Shi, J. W., Zhang, F., Zhao, Y. L., and Chai, Z. F., Acute toxicity of nano- and micro-scale zinc powder in healthy adult mice, Toxicology Letters, 161, 115-123, 2006.

85. Toutain, H. and Morin, J. P., Renal proximal tubule cell cultures for studying drug-induced nephro-toxicity and modulation of phenotype expression by medium components, Renal Failure, 14, 371-383, 1992.

86. Mickuviene, I., Kirveliene, V., and Juodka, B., Experimental survey of non-clonogenic viability assays for adherent cells in vitro, Toxicology In Vitro, 18, 639-648, 2004.

87. Hong, S., Bielinska, A. U., Mecke, A., Keszler, B., Beals, J. L., Shi, X., Balogh, L., Orr, B. G., Baker, J. R., and Banaszak Holl, M. M., Interaction of poly(amidoamine) dendrimers with supported lipid bilayers and cells: hole formation and the relation to transport, Bioconjugate Chemistry, 15, 774-782, 2004.

88. Decker, T. and Lohmann-Matthes, M. L., A quick and simple method for the quantitation of lactate dehydrogenase release in measurements of cellular cytotoxicity and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) activity, Journal of Immunological Methods, 115, 61-69, 1988.

89. Korzeniewski, C. and Callewaert, D. M., An enzyme-release assay for natural cytotoxicity, Journal of Immunological Methods, 64, 313-320, 1983.

90. Alley, M. C., Scudiero, D. A., Monks, A., Hursey, M. L., Czerwinski, M. J., Fine, D. L., Abbott, B. J., Mayo, J. G., Shoemaker, R. H., and Boyd, M. R., Feasibility of drug screening with panels of human tumor cell lines using a microculture tetrazolium assay, Cancer Research, 48, 589-601, 1988.

91. Berridge, M. V., Herst, P. M., and Tan, A. S., Tetrazolium dyes as tools in cell biology: New insights into their cellular reduction, Biotechnology Annual Review, 11, 127-152, 2005.

92. Natarajan, M., Mohan, S., Martinez, B. R., Meltz, M. L., and Herman, T. S., Antioxidant compounds interfere with the 3, Cancer Detection and Prevention, 24, 405-414, 2000.

93. Vellonen, K. S., Honkakoski, P., and Urtti, A., Substrates and inhibitors of efflux proteins interfere with the MTT assay in cells and may lead to underestimation of drug toxicity, European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 23, 181-188, 2004.

Voigt, W., Sulforhodamine B assay and chemosensitivity, Methods in Molecular Medicine, 110, 39-48, 2005.

Tuschl, H. and Schwab, C. E., Flow cytometric methods used as screening tests for basal toxicity of chemicals, Toxicology In Vitro, 18, 483-491, 2004.

Cui, D., Tian, F., Ozkan, C. S., Wang, M., and Gao, H., Effect of single wall carbon nanotubes on human HEK293 cells, Toxicology Letters, 155, 73-85, 2005.

Tao, F., Gonzalez-Flecha, B., and Kobzik, L., Reactive oxygen species in pulmonary inflammation by ambient particulates, Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 35, 327-340, 2003. Li, N., Sioutas, C., Cho, A., Schmitz, D., Misra, C., Sempf, J., Wang, M., Oberley, T., Froines, J., and Nel, A., Ultrafine particulate pollutants induce oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage, Environmental Health Perspectives, 111, 455-460, 2003.

Fernandez-Urrusuno, R., Fattal, E., Rodrigues, J. M., Feger, J., Bedossa, P., and Couvreur, P., Effect of polymeric nanoparticle administration on the clearance activity of the mononuclear phagocyte system in mice, Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, 31, 401-408, 1996. Fernandez-Urrusuno, R., Fattal, E., Feger, J., Couvreur, P., and Therond, P., Evaluation of hepatic antioxidant systems after intravenous administration of polymeric nanoparticles, Biomaterials, 18, 511-517, 1997.

Lovric, J., Cho, S. J., Winnik, F. M., and Maysinger, D., Unmodified cadmium telluride quantum dots induce reactive oxygen species formation leading to multiple organelle damage and cell death, Chemical Biology, 12, 1227-1234, 2005.

Risom, L., Moller, P., and Loft, S., Oxidative stress-induced DNA damage by particulate air pollution, Mutation Research, 592, 119-137, 2005.

Grisham, M. B. and McCord, J. M., Chemistry and cytotoxicity of reactive oxygen metabolites, In Physiology of Oxygen Radicals, Taylor, A. E., Matalon, S., and Ward, P., Eds., American Physiology Society, Bethesda, MD, pp. 1-18, 1986.

Kamat, J. P., Devasagayam, T. P. A., Priyadarsini, K. I., and Mohan, H., Reactive oxygen species mediated membrane damage induced by fullerene derivatives and its possible biological implications, Toxicology, 155, 55-61, 2000.

Dotan, Y., Lichtenberg, D., and Pinchuk, I., Lipid peroxidation cannot be used as a universal criterion of oxidative stress, Progress in Lipid Research, 43, 200-227, 2004. Black, M. J. and Brandt, R. B., Spectrofluorometric analysis of hydrogen peroxide, Analytical Biochemistry, 58, 246-254, 1974.

Dubuisson, M. L., de Wergifosse, B., Trouet, A., Baguet, F., Marchand-Brynaert, J., and Rees, J. F., Antioxidative properties of natural coelenterazine and synthetic methyl coelenterazine in rat hepato-cytes subjected to tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress, Biochemical Pharmacology, 60, 471-478, 2000.

Shaik, I. H. and Mehvar, R., Rapid determination of reduced and oxidized glutathione levels using a new thiol-masking reagent and the enzymatic recycling method: application to the rat liver and bile samples, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 385 (1), 105-113, 2006.

Van Cruchten, S. and Van den Broeck, W., Morphological and biochemical aspects of apoptosis, oncosis and necrosis, Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal ofVeterinary Medicine Series C, 31, 214-223, 2002.

Bottini, M., Bruckner, S., Nika, K., Bottini, N., Bellucci, S., Magrini, A., Bergamaschi, A., and Mustelin, T., Multi-walled carbon nanotubes induce T lymphocyte apoptosis, Toxicology Letters, 160, 121-126, 2006.

Cui, D., Tian, F., Ozkan, C. S., Wang, M., and Gao, H., Effect of single wall carbon nanotubes on human HEK293 cells, Toxicology Letters, 155, 73-85, 2005.

Kuo, J. H., Jan, M. S., andChiu, H.W., Mechanism of cell death induced by cationic dendrimers in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage-like cells, Journal ofPharmacy and Pharmacology, 57, 489-495, 2005. Cui, D., Tian, F., Ozkan, C. S., Wang, M., and Gao, H., Effect of single wall carbon nanotubes on human HEK293 cells, Toxicology Letters, 155, 73-85, 2005.

Wang, Z. B., Liu, Y. Q., and Cui, Y. F., Pathways to caspase activation, Cell Biology International, 29, 489-496, 2005.

Gurtu, V., Kain, S. R., and Zhang, G., Fluorometric and colorimetric detection of caspase activity associated with apoptosis, Analytical Biochemistry, 251, 98-102, 1997.

116. Loo, D. T. and Rillema, J. R., Measurement of cell death, Methods in Cell Biology, 57,251-264,1998.

117. Le Bras, M., Clement, M. V., Pervaiz, S., and Brenner, C., Reactive oxygen species and the mitochondrial signaling pathway of cell death, Histology and Histopathology, 20, 205-219, 2005.

118. Xia, T., Korge, P., Weiss, J. N., Li, N., Venkatesen, M. I., Sioutas, C., and Nel, A., Quinones and aromatic chemical compounds in particulate matter induce mitochondrial dysfunction: implications for ultrafine particle toxicity, Environmental Health Perspectives, 112, 1347-1358, 2004.

119. Hussain, S. M., Hess, K. L., Gearhart, J. M., Geiss, K. T., and Schlager, J. J., In vitro toxicity of nanoparticles in BRL 3A rat liver cells, Toxicology In Vitro, 19, 975-983, 2005.

120. Foley, S., Crowley, C., Smaihi, M., Bonfils, C., Erlanger, B. F., Seta, P., and Larroque, C., Cellular localisation of a water-soluble fullerene derivative, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 294, 116-119, 2002.

121. Isakovic, A., Markovic, Z., Todorovic-Markovic, B., Nikolic, N., Vranjes-Djuric, S., Mirkovic, M., Dramicanin, M., Harhaji, L., Raicevic, N., Nikolic, Z., and Trajkovic, V., Distinct cytotoxic mechanisms of pristine versus hydroxylated fullerene, Toxicological Sciences, 91(1), 173-183,2006.

122. Qi, L. F., Xu, Z. R., Li, Y., Jiang, X., and Han, X. Y., In vitro effects of chitosan nanoparticles on proliferation of human gastric carcinoma cell line MGC803 cells, World Journal of Gastroenterology, 11, 5136-5141, 2005.

123. Hirsch, T., Susin, S. A., Marzo, I., Marchetti, P., Zamzami, N., and Kroemer, G., Mitochondrial permeability transition in apoptosis and necrosis, Cell Biology and Toxicology, 14, 141-145, 1998.

124. Amacher, D. E., Drug-associated mitochondrial toxicity and its detection, Current Medicinal Chemistry, 12, 1829-1839, 2005.

125. Gogvadze, V., Orrenius, S., and Zhivotovsky, B., Analysis of mitochondrial dysfunction during cell death. In Current Protocols in Toxicology, Wiley, New York, pp. 10.1-2.10.27, 2004.

126. Guo, W.-X., Pye, Q. N., Williamson, K. S., Stewart, C. A., Hensley, K. L., Kotake, Y., Floyd, R. A., and Broyles, R. H., Mitochondrial dysfunction in choline deficiency-induced apoptosis in cultured rat hepatocytes, Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 39, 641-650, 2005.

127. Merrick, B. A. and Madenspacher, J. H., Complementary gene and protein expression studies and integrative approaches in toxicogenomics, Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 207,189-194,2005.

128. Jani, P., Halbert, G. W., Langridge, J., and Florence, A. T., Nanoparticle uptake by the rat gastrointestinal mucosa: Quantitation and particle size dependency, Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 42, 821-826, 1990.

129. Duncan, R., Polymer conjugates for tumour targeting and intracytoplasmic delivery. The EPR effect as a common gateway? Pharmaceutical Science & Technology Today, 2, 441-449, 1999.

130. Briley-Saebo, K., Hustvedt, S. O., Haldorsen, A., and Bjornerud, A., Long-term imaging effects in rat liver after a single injection of an iron oxide nanoparticle based MR contrast agent, Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 20, 622-631, 2004.

131. Cahouet, A., Denizot, B., Hindre, F., Passirani, C., Heurtault, B., Moreau, M., Le Jeune, J., and Benoit, J., Biodistribution of dual radiolabeled lipidic nanocapsules in the rat using scintigraphy and gamma counting, International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 242, 367-371, 2002.

132. Deen, W. M., Lazzara, M. J., and Myers, B. D., Structural determinants of glomerular permeability, American Journal of Physiology—Renal Physiology, 281, F579-F596, 2001.

133. Walton, K., Dorne, J. L., and Renwick, A. G., Species-specific uncertainty factors for compounds eliminated principally by renal excretion in humans, Food and Chemical Toxicology, 42,261-274,2004.

134. Olson, H., Betton, G., Robinson, D., Thomas, K., Monro, A., Kolaja, G., Lilly, P., Sanders, J., Sipes, G., Bracken, W., Dorato, M., Van Deun, K., Smith, P., Berger, B., and Heller, A., Concordance of the toxicity of pharmaceuticals in humans and in animals, Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 32, 56-67, 2000.

135. Neerman, M. F., Zhang, W., Parrish, A. R., and Simanek, E. E., In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a melamine dendrimer as a vehicle for drug delivery, International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 281, 129-132, 2004.

136. Harries, M., Ellis, P., and Harper, P., Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel for metastatic breast cancer, Journal of Clinical Oncology, 23, 7768-7771, 2005.

137. Descotes, J., Importance of immunotoxicity in safety assessment: a medical toxicologist's perspective, Toxicology Letters, 149, 103-108, 2004.

Dobrovolskaia, M. A. and Kozlov, S. V., Inflammation and cancer: When NF-kappa B amalgamates the perilous partnership, Current Cancer Drug Targets, 5, 325-344, 2005.

Merk, H. F., Sachs, B., and Baron, J., The skin: Target organ in immunotoxicology of small-molecular-weight compounds, Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin Physiology, 14,419-430, 2001. Myers, A., Clark, J., and Foster, H., Tuberculosis and treatment with infliximab, New England Journal of Medicine, 346, 625-626, 2002.

Keane, J., Gershon, S., Wise, R. P., Mirabile-Levens, E., Kasznica, J., Schwieterman, W. D., Siegel, J. N., and Braun, M. M., Tuberculosis associated with infliximab, a tumor necrosis factor (alpha)-neutralizing agent, New England Journal of Medicine, 345, 1098-1104, 2001. Zhang, Z., Correa, H., and Begue, R. E., Tuberculosis and treatment with infliximab, New England Journal of Medicine, 346, 623-626, 2002.

Lim, W. S., Powell, R. J., and Johnston, I. D., Tuberculosis and treatment with infliximab, New England Journal Medicine, 346, 623-626, 2002.

Nart, D., Nalbantgil, S., Yagdi, T., Yilmaz, F., Hekimgil, M., Yuce, G., and Hamulu, A., Primary cardiac lymphoma in a heart transplant recipient, Transplant Proceedings, 37, 1362-1364, 2005. Caillard, S., Pencreach, E., Braun, L., Marcellin, L., Jaegle, M. L., Wolf, P., Parissiadis, A., Hannedouche, T., Gaub, M. P., and Moulin, B., Simultaneous development of lymphoma in recipients of renal transplants from a single donor: Donor origin confirmed by human leukocyte antigen staining and microsatellite analysis, Transplantation, 79, 79-84, 2005.

Karakus, S., Ozyilkan, O., Akcali, Z., Demirhan, B., and Haberal, M., Acute myeloid leukemia 4 years after Kaposi's sarcoma in a renal transplant recipient, Onkologie, 27, 163-165, 2004. http://ncl.cancer.gov/working_assay-cascade.asp

FDA/CDER, Guidance for industry. Immunotoxicology evaluation of investigational new drugs, 2002, http://www.fda.gov/Cder/guidance/.

FDA/CDER, ICH S8: Immunotoxicity studies for human pharmaceuticals (draft), 2004, http://www. fda.gov/Cder/guidance/.

FDA/CBER/CDER, Guidance for industry. Developing medical imaging drug and biological products. Part 1: Conducting safety assessments, 2004, http://www.fda.gov/Cder/guidance/. FDA/CDER/CBER, Guidance for industry. ICH S6: Preclinical safety evaluation of biotechnology-derived pharmaceuticals, 1997, http://www.fda.gov/Cder/guidance/.

FDA/CDRH, Guidance for industry and FDA reviewers. Immunotoxicity testing guidance, May 1999, http://www.fda.gov/cdrh/guidance.html.

ANSI/AAMI/ISO, 10993-4: Biological evaluation of medical devices. Part 4: Selection of tests for interaction with blood, 2002, http://www.iso.org/iso/en/CatalogueListPage.CatalogueList. ASTM, Standard practice. F1906-98: Evaluation of immune responses in biocompatibility testing using ELISA tests, lymphocyte proliferation, and cell migration, 2003, http://www.astm.org/cgibin/ SoftCart.exe/NEWSITE_JAVASCRIPT/index.shtml?L+mystore+zdrn2970+1157995562. ASTM, Standard practice. F748-98: Selecting generic biological test methods for materials and devices, http://www.astm.org/cgibin/SoftCart.exe/NEWSITE_JAVASCRIPT/index. shtml?L+mystore+zdrn2970+1157995562.

ASTM, F756-00: Standard practice for assessment of hemolytic properties of materials, 2000,

http://www.astm.org/cgibin/SoftCart.exe/NEWSITE_JAVASCRIPT/index.shtml?L+mystore+zdrn

2970+1157995562.

Balakrishnan, B., Kumar, D. S., Yoshida, Y., and Jayakrishnan, A., Chemical modification of poly(vinyl chloride) resin using poly(ethylene glycol) to improve blood compatibility, Biomaterials, 26, 3495-3502, 2005.

Oyewumi, M. O., Yokel, R. A., Jay, M., Coakley, T., and Mumper, R. J., Comparison of cell uptake, biodistribution and tumor retention of folate-coated and PEG-coated gadolinium nanoparticles in tumor-bearing mice, Journal of Controlled Release, 95, 613-626, 2004.

Diederichs, J. E., Plasma protein adsorption patterns on liposomes: establishment of analytical procedure, Electrophoresis, 17, 607-611, 1996.

Harnisch, S. and Muller, R. H., Plasma protein adsorption patterns on emulsions for parenteral administration: establishment of a protocol for two-dimensional polyacrylamide electrophoresis, Electrophoresis, 19, 349-354, 1998.

161. Goppert, T. M. and Muller, R. H., Alternative sample preparation prior to two-dimensional electrophoresis protein analysis on solid lipid nanoparticles, Electrophoresis, 25, 134-140, 2004.

162. Thode, K., Luck, M., Semmler, W., Muller, R. H., and Kresse, M., Determination of plasma protein adsorption on magnetic iron oxides: sample preparation, Pharmaceutial Research, 14,905-910,1997.

163. Peracchia, M. T., Harnisch, S., Pinto-Alphandary, H., Gulik, A., Dedieu, J. C., Desmaele, D., d'Angelo, J., Muller, R. H., and Couvreur, P., Visualization of in vitro protein-rejecting properties of PEGylated stealth (R) polycyanoacrylate nanoparticles, Biomaterials, 20, 1269-1275, 1999.

164. Gessner, A., Lieske, A., Paulke, B. R., and Muller, R. H., Influence of surface charge density on protein adsorption on polymeric nanoparticles: Analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis, European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 54, 165-170, 2002.

165. Moghimi, S. M., Hunter, A. C., and Murray, J. C., Long-circulating and target-specific nanoparticles: Theory to practice, Pharmacological Reviews, 53, 283-318, 2001.

166. Blunk, T., Hochstrasser, D. F., Sanchez, J. C., Muller, B. W., and Muller, R. H., Colloidal carriers for intravenous drug targeting: Plasma protein adsorption patterns on surface-modified latex particles evaluated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Electrophoresis, 14, 1382-1387, 1993.

167. Diluzio, N. R. and Zilversmit, D. B., Influence of exogenous proteins on blood clearance and tissue distribution of colloidal gold, American Journal of Physiology, 180, 563-565, 1955.

168. Campbell, P. A., Canono, B. P., and Drevets, D. A., Measurement of bacterial ingestion and killing by macrophages, Current Protocols in Immunology, Suppl. 12, 14.6.1-14.6.13, 1994.

169. Prabha, S., Zhou, W. Z., Panyam, J., and Labhasetwar, V., Size-dependency of nanoparticle-mediated gene transfection: studies with fractionated nanoparticles, International Journal ofPhar-maceutics, 244, 105-115, 2002.

170. Chamberlain, P. and Mire-Sluis, A. R., An overview of scientific and regulatory issues for the immunogenicity of biological products, Developments in Biological Standardization (Basel), 112, 3-11, 2003.

171. Casadevall, N., Antibodies against rHuEPO: native and recombinant, Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 17(Suppl. 5), 42-47, 2002.

172. Casadevall, N., Nataf, J., Viron, B., Kolta, A., Kiladjian, J. J., Martin-Dupont, P., Michaud, P., Papo, T., Ugo, V., Teyssandier, I., Varet, B., and Mayeux, P., Pure red-cell aplasia and antierythropoietin antibodies in patients treated with recombinant erythropoietin, New England Journal of Medicine, 346, 469-475, 2002.

173. Koren, E., Zuckerman, L. A., and Mire-Sluis, A. R., Immune responses to therapeutic proteins in humans—clinical significance, assessment and prediction, Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, 3, 349-360, 2002.

174. Swanson, S. J., Ferbas, J., Mayeux, P., and Casadevall, N., Evaluation of methods to detect and characterize antibodies against recombinant human erythropoietin, Nephron Clinical Practice, 96, c88-c95, 2004.

175. Andreev, S. M., Babakhin, A. A., Petrukhina, A. O., Romanova, V. S., Parnes, Z. N., and Petrov, R. V., Immunogenetic and allergenic activities conjugates of fullere with amino acids and protein, Doklady Akademii Nauk, 370, 261-264, 2000.

176. Braden, B. C., Goldbaum, F. A., Chen, B. X., Kirschner, A. N., Wilson, S. R., and Erlanger, B. F., X-ray crystal structure of an anti-Buckminsterfullerene antibody Fab fragment: Biomolecular recognition of C-60, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97, 12193-12197, 2000.

177. Chen, B. X., Wilson, S. R., Das, M., Coughlin, D. J., and Erlanger, B. F., Antigenicity of fullerenes: antibodies specific for fullerenes and their characteristics, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 95, 10809-10813, 1998.

178. Masalova, O. V., Shepelev, A. V., Atanadze, S. N., Parnes, Z. N., Romanova, V. S., Vol'pina, O. M., Semiletov Iu, A., and Kushch, A. A., Immunostimulating effect of water-soluble fullerene derivatives—perspective adjuvants for a new generation of vaccine, Doklady Akademii Nauk, 369, 411-413, 1999.

Nanotechnology: Regulatory Perspective for Drug Development in Cancer Therapeutics

Diabetes Sustenance

Diabetes Sustenance

Get All The Support And Guidance You Need To Be A Success At Dealing With Diabetes The Healthy Way. This Book Is One Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To Learning How Nutritional Supplements Can Control Sugar Levels.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment