The growth of electrochemically produced PPy islands takes place at a distinct distance from the electrodes reactive sites due to a pH gradient from these sites towards the surface planes.

Potentiostatically produced PPy films are rougher than potentiodynamically produced films because of a faster growing process. Potentiostatically produced polymer films show a change in their surface roughness when they are electrochemically oxidized which is in contrast to potentiodynamically produced PPy caused by a counter ion diffusion gradient. The use of pH buffers of pH 3 and higher leads to smoother PPy film surfaces because the proton induced chemical polymerizaion is negligible.

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