Outlook

Among the many advantages of STM, two are most prominent in the cases described here: (i) its adaptability for measurements under reaction conditions, and (ii) its ability to resolve localized nanometer-scale structural features. Based upon these two advantages alone, it is not difficult to comprehend why STM has already become a pillar among the many powerful techniques employed in surface science. On the other hand, its inability to probe surface energetics, composition, and electronic structure will always require additional surface spectroscopic techniques if a more complete understanding of complex heterogeneous processes is desired. A strategy that combines in-situ STM with electrochemical UHV technique may be compelling since it bridges the gaps inherent in the separate techniques.

Acknowledments. MPS wishes to acknowledge the National Science Foundation and the Robert A. Welch Foundation. KI thanks the Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture, Japan and the ERATO-Itaya Electrochemiscopy Project, JRDC. JLS acknowledges the support of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Naval Research.

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