The Best Ways to Treat Scars
Because of these characteristics, PEG hydrogels have been evaluated for multiple in vivo uses, including implanted glucose sensors 43,44 , drug delivery devices 45,46 , and tissue engineering 47-49 . Multiple mammalian cell lines have been encapsulated within PEG hydrogels, including murine fibroblasts, macrophages, and hepatocytes 42, 50 , rat osteoblasts 51 , embryonic rat cortical neurons and astrocytes 52 , human tracheal scar fibroblasts 53 , and human hepatoma (HepG2) cells 54 . Additionally, the transparent nature of PEG hydrogels also makes them suitable for various optical detection schemes when they are used in biosensing applications.
Problem is that the body's immune system can reject the metal stents. When this happens, the immune system can cause the creation of scar tissue. In some cases, the scar tissue can build up inside blood vessels and interfere with blood flow. as much dangerous scar tissue. One research company is testing a nano-thin coating application that is designed to protect surrounding tissue from any potentially harmful interactions with metal stents.
The success and effectiveness of the strategies investigated for neural tissue regeneration have been measured in a variety of ways in vitro and in vivo. In the PNS, an ideal material for implantation should optimize neural and Schwann cell function. In the CNS, the materials should optimize neural cell function but also minimize the excessive glial scar tissue produced by reactive astrocytes. Metrics for evaluating cell activity, associated proteins, tissue structure, and sensory and motor function have been used to analyze the success of the variety of biomaterials and treatment techniques.
Peripheral nerve damage is typically, but not exclusively, caused by traumatic injury. Nerves can also be damaged by other means, including orthopedic surgery complications. For example, in approximately 1-3 of all total hip replacements, the sciatic nerve can be injured by excessive tension when the extremity has been lengthened significantly (Wasielewski et al. 1992). If a nerve is transected by severe injury, the nerve function is lost. Thus, the portion of the nerve distal to the injury dies and degenerates. Nevertheless, the proximal segment may be able to regenerate and reestablish nerve function. The injury creates a gap which must be bridged by the growth cones of regenerating axons. First, Schwann cells and macrophages remove myelin and other cellular debris from the injury site. A fibrin cable forms across the injury gap. Schwann cells then infiltrate and orient themselves, along with an oriented laminin-1 matrix, to form the aligned Bands of Bungner which guide the newly...
Abstract In this chapter, the use of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as sensors for healthy bone growth will be discussed. MWCNTs are cytocompat-ible with osteoblasts (bone-forming cells) and enhance osteoblast calcium deposition, and thus, bone formation. Moreover, here, MWCNTs have been grown out of nanopores of anodized titanium (MWCNT-Ti), which has a surface layer of titanium oxide (a popular chemistry for orthopedic implants), to serve as a novel in situ orthopedic implant sensor. The electrochemical responses of MWCNT-Ti have been investigated in an attempt to ascertain if MWCNT-Ti can serve as novel in situ sensors for bone formation. MWCNT-Ti have been subjected to a ferri ferrocyanide redox couple and its electrochemical behaviors measured. Cyclic voltammograms (CV) have demonstrated enhanced redox potentials of the MWCNT-Ti compared to Ti alone. These redox signals have been superior to that obtained by bare Ti, which does not sense either oxidation or reduction peaks...
Single crystal micron diamond can easily pick up soft spots from work surface and leave many scars behind (top). Polycrystalline micron diamond can polish composite materials evenly without causing depressed regions (bottom). Figure 5.25. Single crystal micron diamond can easily pick up soft spots from work surface and leave many scars behind (top). Polycrystalline micron diamond can polish composite materials evenly without causing depressed regions (bottom).
The lack of tissue regeneration in the CNS is due to a complex series of events that follow injury. Though these events are necessary for the restoration of the blood-brain barrier and minimization of secondary tissue damage, they also result in the formation of an environment which is not conducive to tissue regeneration. Damage to the CNS initiates an astrocytic response resulting in a glial scar. Damaged tissue releases molecular cues which promote astrocytic glial cell activity. Transforming growth factor b (TGFb) is among the molecular cues that increase immediately after injury and contribute to the initiation of reactive gliosis. Astrocytes migrate, proliferate, increase in size, and produce a glial scar rich in extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, myelin, astrocytes, and oligodendro-cytes. While hypertrophic astrocytes comprise a significant portion of the glial scar, production of glycosaminoglycans is critical to glial scar formation. Reactive astrocytes produce a variety of...
Unfortunately, viruses may also be utilized as diabolical weapons, capable of infecting large populations. However like other technological double-edged swords, their potential benefit is even greater. Nanotechnology combined with genetic engineering could lead to virus-like entities which could stalk and destroy lethal infectious agents, malignant cells, atherosclerotic plaques which obstruct blood vessels, scar tissue which limits nerve regeneration, neurofibrillary tangles associated with senile dementia, and perhaps other diseases. Future virus-like nano-doctors may be making cellular house calls.
Reactive astrocyte activity on a material is an indicator of how well the material will minimize undesirable glial scarring after implantation. This is relevant for CNS applications of neural tissue scaffolds and also for evaluating materials from which microelectrodes will be fabricated. As with many other in vitro studies, cell adhesion and proliferation are strong indicators for cell activity associated with a material. This is particularly relevant for astrocytes due to their tendency to proliferate after CNS injury. Again, an ideal material for a CNS implant will reduce astrocyte adhesion and proliferation. Rat astrocytes are commonly used in experiments (CRL-2005, American Type Culture Collection, Manassas, VA). Proteins associated with astrocyte activity, such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) can also be labeled and imaged with immunocytochemistry techniques to evaluate cell activation.
Repair machines will also aid healing. After a heart attack, scar tissue replaces dead muscle. Repair machines will stimulate the heart to grow fresh muscle by resetting cellular control mechanisms. By removing scar tissue and guiding fresh growth, they will direct the healing of the heart.
How To Reduce Acne Scarring
Acne is a name that is famous in its own right, but for all of the wrong reasons. Most teenagers know, and dread, the very word, as it so prevalently wrecks havoc on their faces throughout their adolescent years.