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Depth and Load Sensing Equipment

A schematic diagram of equipment that is often used in depth-sensing indentation is shown in Figure 1. It consists of a system of a vertical axis supported by springs to a cell. The indenter is at the end of the axis, as shown in Figure 1. The system is composed of a force actuator, normally an electromagnetic shaker actuator, and a sensor of depth that is generally a capacitance displacement gauge. Other systems that use electrical force applied by capacitance plates

Cellular Nanomachines and the Building Blocks of Life

Nanotechnology is of great importance to molecular biology and medicine because life processes are maintained by the action of a series of biological molecular nanomachines in the cell machinery. By evolutionary modification over trillions of generations, living organisms have perfected an armory of molecular machines, structures, and processes. The living cell, with its myriad of biological components, may be considered the ultimate nano factory. Figure 1.1 shows a schematic diagram of a cell with its FIGURE 1.1 Schematic diagram of a cell and its components.

The Importance of Protein Nanotechnology

The living cell, with its myriad of biological components, may be considered the ultimate nanoscale device. Figure 1 shows a schematic diagram of the cell with its various components. Some typical sizes of proteins and biological species are given in Table 1. Chemistry also deals with atoms and molecules, which are of nanometer sizes. However, nanotechnology differs from chemistry in a very fundamental aspect. Whereas chemistry deals with atoms and molecules at the bulk level (we do not see the molecules in chemical solutions), nanotechnology seeks to actually manipulate individual atoms and molecules in very specific ways. Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of a cell and its components. Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of a cell and its components.

Introduction Description of Molecular Nanotubes

Schematic diagram outlining how a 2-D graphite sheet is rolled to form a nanotube. The diagonal dotted lines denote graphene sheet edges that, if joined, would form a (3, 2) nanotube. Figure 16. Schematic diagram outlining how a 2-D graphite sheet is rolled to form a nanotube. The diagonal dotted lines denote graphene sheet edges that, if joined, would form a (3, 2) nanotube.

Recorded Magnetic Tape

A practical application of electron holography, which required the characterization of magnetic microstructure within the sample as well as the leakage fields outside, involved the examination of magnetic fields in high-density magnetic recording media. Figure 13a shows a schematic diagram of the method used to record bits on a magnetic film. Figure 13b shows results obtained from an in-plane-recorded high-coercivity evaporated Co film that had a thickness of 45 nm, a coercive field of 340 Oe, and a bit length of 5 m 174 . The sample was prepared by evaporating the Co film obliquely onto a glass substrate that had been coated with photoresist. The Co film was partly oxidized to control its coercive field and remanent magnetization, and the recording was performed using a ring-type magnetic head with a track width of 300 m and gap lengths of 200 nm and 1 m. The interference micrograph in Figure 13b shows the projected magnetic lines of force both inside and outside the film. The...

GMR 100Gb Hard Drive Read Heads

Figure 1.5 Schematic diagram of the GMR read head, showing two current leads connected by the sensing element, which itself is a conducting copper sheet sandwiched between a hard and a soft magnet 9 . Figure 1.5 Schematic diagram of the GMR read head, showing two current leads connected by the sensing element, which itself is a conducting copper sheet sandwiched between a hard and a soft magnet 9 .

Nanoscale Desorption of Self Assembled Monolayers

Figure 12. (A) Schematic diagram depicting nanoscale desorption process of SAM (a) with and (b) without water meniscus. With a water meniscus, the electrochemical reaction causes the removal of the SAM layer. However, the reaction does not occur without a water meniscus at low humidity. (B) The SAM in the square region is removed utilizing a STM probe. The experiment is performed in air with 75 relative humidity and 3 V tip bias. Adapted with permission from 87 J . Phys. Chem. 100 (1996) 11086. Figure 12. (A) Schematic diagram depicting nanoscale desorption process of SAM (a) with and (b) without water meniscus. With a water meniscus, the electrochemical reaction causes the removal of the SAM layer. However, the reaction does not occur without a water meniscus at low humidity. (B) The SAM in the square region is removed utilizing a STM probe. The experiment is performed in air with 75 relative humidity and 3 V tip bias. Adapted with permission from 87 J . Phys. Chem. 100 (1996) 11086.

Quantum Dot Superlattices

Figure 15. (a) Schematic of a QCA half cell. (b) Scanning electron microscopy image of the device utilizing Al AlO Al tunnel junctions. (c) Schematic diagram of the experimental circuit. A single electron moves between the top (D1) and the bottom (D3) quantum dots through the middle dot (D2), which acts as a barrier and locks the electron in either D1 or D3 when it is biased. (d)-(f) Measured (solid lines) and calculated (dotted lines) responses to the input and clocking signals together with applied input signals (dashed lines) of the top (d), middle (e), and bottom (f) dot. Reprinted with permission from 225 , A. O. Orlov et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 295 (2000). 2002, American Institute of Physics. Figure 15. (a) Schematic of a QCA half cell. (b) Scanning electron microscopy image of the device utilizing Al AlO Al tunnel junctions. (c) Schematic diagram of the experimental circuit. A single electron moves between the top (D1) and the bottom (D3) quantum dots through the middle dot...

Characterization Methods 331 Introduction

The SEM is typically used for imaging surface and subsurface microstructure of samples. An accelerating voltage of between 1 and 30 kV is typically used. It images the sample by scanning it with a high-energy beam of electrons in a raster scan pattern. The electrons interact with the atoms that make up the sample producing signals that contain information about the sample's surface topography. A schematic diagram of the SEM is shown in Fig. 7 Kelsall et al 2004 . Fig. 7 Schematic diagram of the layout of a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Kelsall et al 2004 . Fig. 7 Schematic diagram of the layout of a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Kelsall et al 2004 . The AFM consists of a cantilever with a sharp probe that is used to scan the sample surface. When the probe is brought into proximity of a sample surface, forces between the probe and the sample lead to a deflection of the cantilever according to Hooke's law. Forces that are measured in AFM include mechanical contact force, van...

Examples Of Advanced Microfluidic Cellular Bioassays

Schematic diagram of the microfluidic gradient generator. (A) Top view of device with gradient generating and observation regions. (B) 3D view of observation region where cells are exposed to chemoattractant gradients. (C) Micrograph of cells at the beginning of the experiment (0 min, left panel) deposited at the bottom of the field of view, and at the end of the experiment (90 min, right panel). Migration is subjected to a linear increase in IL-8 (0-50 ng ml). Bar, 200 im 40 . (Reproduced by permission from Jeon, Baskaran et al. 2002. Copyright 2002 Nature Publishing Group www.nature.com) FIGURE 4.5. Schematic diagram of the microfluidic gradient generator. (A) Top view of device with gradient generating and observation regions. (B) 3D view of observation region where cells are exposed to chemoattractant gradients. (C) Micrograph of cells at the beginning of the experiment (0 min, left panel) deposited at the bottom of the field of view, and at the end of the experiment...

Magnetic Micro Nano Bead Based Biochemical Detection System

In the past few years, a large number of microfluidic prototype devices and systems have been developed, specifically for biochemical warfare detection systems and portable diagnostic applications. The BioMEMS team at the University of Cincinnati has been working on the development of a remotely accessible generic microfluidic system for biochemical detection and biomedical analysis, based on the concepts of surface-mountable microfluidic motherboards, sandwich immunoassays, and electrochemical detection techniques 9.74,75 . The limited goal of this work is to develop a generic MEMS-based microfluidic system and to apply the fluidic system to detect bio-molecules, such as specific proteins and or antigens, in liquid samples. Figure 9.22 illustrates the schematic diagram of a generic microfluidic system for biochemical detection using a magnetic bead approach for both sampling and manipulating the target bio-molecules 9.76,77 .

Electrostatic Rotary Microactuator with Improved Shaped Design

Figure 3.2 Schematic diagram of a conventional ESRM showing (a) elements of the rotary microactuator and (b) specific details on clearance variables. Figure 3.2 Schematic diagram of a conventional ESRM showing (a) elements of the rotary microactuator and (b) specific details on clearance variables.

Semiconductor Nanoparticle Layers

And, hence, the thicker the thermally evaporated layer, the greater its surface roughness. Multilayer of consecutively deposited SiOx (GeS2, ZnSe) and CdSe layers were fabricated in which the SiOx thickness dSiO was 20 times greater than that of CdSe layers dCdSe. One can expect that CdSe layers will be discontinuous rather than continuous. A schematic diagram of such a ML structure is shown in Figure 7. Cross-section high-resolution electron microscopy measurements have revealed 97, 199, 200 that, indeed, CdSe does not form a continuous layer. Instead, nearly spherical CdSe nanoparticles partly isolated, and partly in contact among each other, are disposed in a composite SiOx-CdSe sublayer of up to 10 nm in thickness (Fig. 8). It should be pointed out that nanoparticles are not grown in the surface valleys but their spatial distribution follows the morphology of the surface underneath. The great width of the CdSe nanoparticle spatial distribution also indicates that they should not...

Experimental Techniques

The Raman experiments were performed in a backscattering geometry at room temperature using 514.5 nm (2.41 eV), 496.8 nm (2.496 eV), and 488 nm (2.541 eV) lines from an argon-ion laser and the 632.8 nm (1.96 eV) line from a He-Ne laser. The Raman spectra were analyzed using a JY T64000 micro-Raman system with a liquid nitrogen cooled CCD detector. The pressure-dependent measurements were carried out using a diamond anvil cell (DAC) with a 4 1 mixture of methanol and ethanol as the pressure-transmitting medium. Figure 12.2 shows a schematic diagram of the high-pressure experimental setup. A small sample with dimensions of 100 x 100 x 30 j.m3 was prepared by mechanical polishing and cutting before Figure 12.2. A schematic diagram of the high-pressure Raman experimental setup. Figure 12.2. A schematic diagram of the high-pressure Raman experimental setup.

Deposition ofZn Islands

A newer technique to modify the surface of a-Fe2O3 with Zn dots was attempted by the authors' group in 2007 89 . These samples exhibited much better PEC responses, compared to doping or layering of the same metal. We modified the surface of 1.5 at Zn-doped iron oxide (prepared by spray pyrolysis) by depositing thermally evaporated Zn through a mesh of pore diameter 0.7 mm, using a vacuum-coating unit. The heights of the Zn dots were varied in the range 100 to 260 A by varying the processing time of thermal evaporation. The schematic diagram explaining the method of preparation of sample is shown in Figure 13.14. Figure 13.14 Schematic diagram of Zn dotted islands on an a Fe2O3 thin film. (Reproduced from S. Kumari, A.P. Singh, C. Tripathi et al., Enhanced photoelectrochemical response of Zn dotted hematite, International Journal of Photoenergy, 87467, 1 6, 2007, Hindawi Publishing Corporation.) Figure 13.14 Schematic diagram of Zn dotted islands on an a Fe2O3 thin film. (Reproduced...

Work Function At The Tips Of Nanotubes And Nanobelts

Figure 14. (a) Schematic diagram showing the static charge at the tip of carbon nanotube as a result of difference in work functions between the nanotube and the gold electrode. (b) Schematic experimental approach for measuring the work function at the tip of a carbon nanotube. Figure 14. (a) Schematic diagram showing the static charge at the tip of carbon nanotube as a result of difference in work functions between the nanotube and the gold electrode. (b) Schematic experimental approach for measuring the work function at the tip of a carbon nanotube.

Near Field Scanning Optical Microscopy

FIGURE 12.3 Schematic diagram of a near-field scanning optical microscope. The sample is mounted on a scanning stage, which is controlled by a XYZ-piezo scanner. The NSOM optical fiber probe is mounted on the removable Aurora-2 microscope head and positioned above the sample. A constant probe-sample distance is maintained at less than 10 nm using an electronic feedback system. The fluorescence is collected by a microscope objective through a filter set and imaged onto a PMT detector. FIGURE 12.3 Schematic diagram of a near-field scanning optical microscope. The sample is mounted on a scanning stage, which is controlled by a XYZ-piezo scanner. The NSOM optical fiber probe is mounted on the removable Aurora-2 microscope head and positioned above the sample. A constant probe-sample distance is maintained at less than 10 nm using an electronic feedback system. The fluorescence is collected by a microscope objective through a filter set and imaged onto a PMT detector.

AptamerQD Conjugates for the Detection of Proteins

FIGURE 16.7 A schematic diagram outlining QD-aptamer beacon system for the detection of thrombin. Target protein replaces the bound quencher-oligoDNA by forming stable complex with aptamers on a QD, resulting in recovery of a native QD's fluorescence. FIGURE 16.7 A schematic diagram outlining QD-aptamer beacon system for the detection of thrombin. Target protein replaces the bound quencher-oligoDNA by forming stable complex with aptamers on a QD, resulting in recovery of a native QD's fluorescence.

Phase Change Random Access Memory

Phase-change random-access memory is a technology that uses a chalcogenide as the data storage material in the memory cell. The medium is similar to the switchable material used in rewritable CDs. It is being pioneered by Ovonyx, in association with Intel. A schematic diagram of an Ovonyx Unified Memory (OUM) is shown in Fig. 30.11 30.16 . The OUM is an example of a phase-change random-access memory that operates much as the Flash Memory and MRAM, as far as the electrodes are concerned, except that the memory bit cell consists of a chalcogenide material that undergoes a phase change. Upon passing current from the word line to the bit line, the chalcogenide, a GeTeSb alloy, changes its phase reversibly between amorphous and crystalline states, depending on the temperature it is heated to and the rate of cooling. This change in phase is accompanied by a several orders of magnitude change in conductivity, which makes it possible to obtain a high reading signal-to-noise ratio. Similar to...

Ferroelectric Nanocrystal Dispersed Oxide Glasses

Schematic diagram of a ferroelectric nanocomposite glass. The dispersed nanocrystals are shown by dark black spots in the glass matrix. Figure 1. Schematic diagram of a ferroelectric nanocomposite glass. The dispersed nanocrystals are shown by dark black spots in the glass matrix.

Reliable Modeling Approach for MPs with Fixed Valves

Figure 7.1 Fixed-valve MP. (a) Schematic diagram showing the critical elements, (b) linear graph representing the device elements, and (c) diagram showing a typical Tesla-type valve and two definitions of valve length. For L ' Leq segments were combined as parallel and series impedances, i.e., Leq Lt 1 (1 L2 11 L3)1 1 . For L ' Lave the shortest and longest path through the valve were averaged, i.e., Lave (Lt 1 L3 1 1 L1 1 L2 1 ) 2. Figure 7.1 Fixed-valve MP. (a) Schematic diagram showing the critical elements, (b) linear graph representing the device elements, and (c) diagram showing a typical Tesla-type valve and two definitions of valve length. For L ' Leq segments were combined as parallel and series impedances, i.e., Leq Lt 1 (1 L2 11 L3)1 1 . For L ' Lave the shortest and longest path through the valve were averaged, i.e., Lave (Lt 1 L3 1 1 L1 1 L2 1 ) 2.

Nanowire Superlattices

In the synthesis of nanowire superlattices, a catalyst available to two or more different materials serves as the critical point for nucleation and directional growth of the nanowires. Meanwhile, the reactants are modulated during growth. Figure 9 is a schematic diagram of the process 14 . The nanoparticle catalyst (yellow) nucleates and directs the nanowire (blue) growth with the catalyst remaining at the terminus of the nanowire (Fig. 9a). To create a single junction within the nanowire, the addition of the first reac-tant is stopped during growth, and then a second reactant is introduced for the remainder of the synthesis (Fig. 9b). Repeated modulation of the reactants during growth produces nanowire superlattices (Fig. 9c).

Magnetoresistive Random Access Memory

Figure 30.10 30.15 is a schematic diagram of a mag-netoresistive random-access memory (MRAM) that acts as a non-volatile storage device. As with Flash Memory, there are word lines and bit lines at the intersection of which is a cell with a switchable property. Whereas with Flash Memory the electric potential of a storage cell is modified by electron tunneling, here it is the magnetic domain orientation that is switched by the current flowing through the electrodes. Passage of electrons through the magnetic domain of the cell depends on the state of polarization of the spins of the injected electrodes, much the same as the operation of giant magnetoresistance elements used to read data in a hard disk drive. In contrast to HDD and Flash Memory, MRAM is still in a stage of development and, as such, is not yet commercially available. One of its main attributes is its high speed of programming, which is faster than that of Flash Memory. The main challenges confronting MRAM technology are...

Transceiver Performance Improvement from Integration of Micromechanical Resonator Technology

Deployment of a folded-beam comb-transduced MM resonator fully integrated with CMOS electronics would maximize the frequency stability of the oscillator against supply voltage fluctuations. System-level schematic diagram of a 16.5 kHz oscillator using folded-beam comb-transduced MM resonator technology is illustrated in Figure 8.8. Critical components ofthis oscillator including the transresistance amplifier, 3-port MM resonator, and output buffer amplifier are clearly identified in this figure. The MM resonator consists of a finger-supporting shuttle mass, which is suspended around 2 mm above the polysilicon substrate by folded flexures. The folded flexures are anchored to the substrate at two central points to provide needed mechanical support. The shuttle mass is free to move around in the direction parallel to the plane of the polysilicon substrate. The fundamental resonance frequency is largely determined by the material properties and geometrical parameters. The resonance...

Surface Area Concentrations

The same measurement principle is used in the diffusion charger aerosol surface-area monitors that have recently become available. These instruments measure the attachment rate of positive unipolar ions to particles, from which the aerosol active surface area is inferred.32 A schematic diagram of the principle of a typical monitor is given in Figure 5.

Sacrificial Layers Suspended Bridges Singleelectron Transistors

At fixed gate bias and fixed source-drain voltage, motion ofthe gate electrode induces charge on the island, and sensitively controlsthe source-drain current. Panel (a) Schematic diagram of electrical operation of the device. A motion of the bar by 2 fm (about the radius of an atomic nucleus) can be detected with 1 Hz bandwidth at 30 mK.

Figure 155 Scanning electron micrograph of selfassembled Si nanowires grown by vaporliquidsolid epitaxy after T Picraux

Perhaps the ultimate limit of size scaling are devices comprised of a small number of molecules, forming the basis of electronic systems realized with molecular devices, or molecular electronics (moltronics). Figure 15-7 shows a schematic diagram of a nanoscale contact to a molecular device, through which current is passed. Here the molecular device is an organic chain to which different

Self Assembled Monolayers

Schematic diagram illustrating precision chemical engineering by e-beam irradiation of SAMs (Process A-nanolithography), followed by selective self-organisation of self-assembled nanocomponents onto templated SAMs, i.e. nanoassembly. Nanoassembly can occur on the unirradiated (Process B) or irradiated areas (Process C) Scheme 1. Schematic diagram illustrating precision chemical engineering by e-beam irradiation of SAMs (Process A-nanolithography), followed by selective self-organisation of self-assembled nanocomponents onto templated SAMs, i.e. nanoassembly. Nanoassembly can occur on the unirradiated (Process B) or irradiated areas (Process C)

Scanning Probe Machine Methods One Atom at a Time

Figure 7.6 Schematic diagrams of (A) scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and (B) atomic force microscope (AFM). For STM the tunnel current I is maintained constant by tip height, controlled by z-piezo. For AFM the force (spring deflection) is maintained constant after 12 . Figure 7.6 Schematic diagrams of (A) scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and (B) atomic force microscope (AFM). For STM the tunnel current I is maintained constant by tip height, controlled by z-piezo. For AFM the force (spring deflection) is maintained constant after 12 .

Nanoparticle Size Distribution Measurement

3.5.1 Measuring Size Distribution using Particle Mobility Analysis. The most common instrument used for measuring size distributions of aerosols of nano-particles is the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). The SMPS is capable of measuring aerosol size distribution in terms of particle mobility diameter from approximately 3 nm up to around 800 nm, although multiple instruments typically need to be operated in parallel to span this range. A schematic diagram is given in Figure 6.

Htermi nation Otermi nation Hl0

Schematic diagram of the H- and O-terminated (00 1) diamond surfaces and their physical properties. Source From Ref. 26. Recently, the uptake of ND by living cell found in the biological ND research facilitated the use of NDs as drug carriers and delivery vehicles. In 1995, Kossovsky and coworkers used ND coated with cellobiose,17 a disaccharide to immobilize mussel adhesive protein (MAP) antigen. Figure 8.16 shows schematic diagram of the structure of diamond-callbiose-MAP. Then the complex was injected into New Zealand white rabbits which have their specificity against MAP. The delivery of antigen caused a strong and specific antibody response. Further experiments showed that ND immobilization

Applications in Chemical Force Microscopy and Force Spectroscopy

Chemically modified nanotube tips. (a) Schematic diagram of the bond configuration of -COOH and amine functionalization. (b) Force titration data shows the expected adhesion dependence on pH for basic (A), acidic ( ) , and neutral ( ) tip functionality 75 Fig. 23. Chemically modified nanotube tips. (a) Schematic diagram of the bond configuration of -COOH and amine functionalization. (b) Force titration data shows the expected adhesion dependence on pH for basic (A), acidic ( ) , and neutral ( ) tip functionality 75

Subtractive Pattern Transfer

Schematic diagram illustrating processing steps for subtractive pattern transfer using RIE. The pattern is defined first with the 60 nm thin resist and subjected to SF6 plasma etching at 173 K Fig. 17.8. Schematic diagram illustrating processing steps for subtractive pattern transfer using RIE. The pattern is defined first with the 60 nm thin resist and subjected to SF6 plasma etching at 173 K

Laser Technology in Micromanufacturing

Schematic diagram illustrating energy sates of an atom Fig. 3.2. Schematic diagram for absorption and emission by an atom during light-atom interaction Fig. 3.2. Schematic diagram for absorption and emission by an atom during light-atom interaction Where, N is the number of atoms (or population) at E, kB is the Boltzman constant (1.3807x1023 J K), and T is the absolute temperature. Because the population at lower energy state is much greater than that at higher energy state, under equilibrium condition it is far more likely that stimulated absorption may take place upon light irradiation than stimulated emission. Hence, to obtain a laser light it is a prerequisite to produce a nonequilibrium condition at which more atoms exist at the excited (or upper) state rather than the lower state. This nonequilibrium distribution of atoms is known as population inversion. To see how to achieve a population inversion and thus laser light generation, let us consider the schematic diagram...

Synthesis of Hybrimers

Siloxane-based hybrid materials (hybrimers) prepared by sol-gel process present many advantages for the design of materials 60-62, 66, 67, 71 . Firstly, many precursors are commercially available or can be modified or synthesized secondly, the control of precursor reactivity can be achieved by controlling the catalysts thirdly, transparent films or monoliths having good robustness can be easily processed and finally, the resulting materials are not toxic. Figure 13.1 shows a schematic diagram of the synthesis of the hybrimers. Typical precursors of the hybrimers are organically modified silicone alkoxides (organo-alkoxysilanes) of general formula R'.Si(OR)4-n where R' can be any organo-functional group and R is an alkyl group. The formation of siloxane Si-O-Si network follows the classical sol-gel route which is as follows.

Exfoliation by extensional flow deformation

Finally, the larger lateral dimension of layered-silicates observed in the feedstock compounds and the injection-moulded samples compared with the corresponding melt-spun fibres would confirm that the extensional flow stress associated with melt-spinning had indeed extended the exfoliation of the layered-silicate. The above analyses would lead to the following proposal of the exfoliation mechanism of layered-silicate during the melt-spinning process and its schematic diagram is given in the literature (Lew, 2004).

Soft XRay and Electron Spectroscopies

Figure 6.1 Schematic diagram of the soft X ray spectroscopy techniques discussed in this chapter. Black dots represent electrons, solid arrows represent electronic transitions and dashed arrows represent incoming or outgoing photons. Figure 6.1 Schematic diagram of the soft X ray spectroscopy techniques discussed in this chapter. Black dots represent electrons, solid arrows represent electronic transitions and dashed arrows represent incoming or outgoing photons.

Liposomal Encapsulation of Sodium Borocaptate and Boronophenylalanine

FIGURE 6.6 Schematic diagram of the structure of a liposome that has an aqueous core and a lipid bilayer membrane. The latter is composed of polar head groups with hydrocarbon tails. The liposomal surface can be modified by PEGylation to prolong its circulation time and linked to either a mAb or a ligand for targeting. FIGURE 6.6 Schematic diagram of the structure of a liposome that has an aqueous core and a lipid bilayer membrane. The latter is composed of polar head groups with hydrocarbon tails. The liposomal surface can be modified by PEGylation to prolong its circulation time and linked to either a mAb or a ligand for targeting.

CMR 40Gb Hard Drive Read Heads

Figure 1.5 Schematic diagram of the GMR read head, showing two current leads connected by the sensing element, which itself is a conducting copper sheet sandwiched between a hard and a soft magnet. 9 Figure 1.5 Schematic diagram of the GMR read head, showing two current leads connected by the sensing element, which itself is a conducting copper sheet sandwiched between a hard and a soft magnet. 9

Biosensors

The key to specificity for biosensor technologies involves bioreceptors. They are responsible for binding the analyte of interest to the sensor for the measurement. These bioreceptors can take many forms and the different bioreceptors that have been used are as numerous as the different analytes that have been monitored using biosensors. However, bioreceptors can generally be classified into five different major categories. These categories include 1) antibody antigen, 2) enzymes, 3) nucleic acids DNA, 4) cellular structures cells and 5) biomimetic. Figure 1.3 shows a schematic diagram of two types of bioreceptors the structure of an immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody molecule (Fig. 1.3A), and DNA and the principle of base pairing in hybridization (Fig. 1.3B).

Biochips

Schematic diagram of a DNA microarray with detection system. FIGURE 1.4. Schematic diagram of a DNA microarray with detection system. FIGURE 1.5. Schematic diagram of an integrated biochip system with microchip sensor. FIGURE 1.5. Schematic diagram of an integrated biochip system with microchip sensor.

Theory

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup used by Wu et al. 35 . A cantilever was mounted in a fluid cell which allows liquid exchange through I O ports. A laser was reflected off the cantilever and focused onto a PSD. FIGURE 2.2. Schematic diagram of the experimental setup used by Wu et al. 35 . A cantilever was mounted in a fluid cell which allows liquid exchange through I O ports. A laser was reflected off the cantilever and focused onto a PSD.

Microfluidics

Schematic diagrams of fluidic design (side view of a bonded reaction well and top view of the Si chip). A single reaction well containing fluidic inlets and outlets in the silicon chip, multiple cantilevers, and the transparent glass PDMS cover for the laser beam to be used for measuring cantilever deflection. FIGURE 2.6. Schematic diagrams of fluidic design (side view of a bonded reaction well and top view of the Si chip). A single reaction well containing fluidic inlets and outlets in the silicon chip, multiple cantilevers, and the transparent glass PDMS cover for the laser beam to be used for measuring cantilever deflection.

Fine Particles

Figure 9a shows a high-resolution lattice image of a 15 nm cuboctahedral ZrO2 crystal that has 111 and 001 faces 90, 120 . Schematic diagrams of the expected shape and 110 projection of the crystal are shown in Figure 9b. A reconstructed electron holographic phase image of the particle, and line profiles obtained across different sections of the phase image, are shown in Figure 9c-g and are consistent with the expected geometry. A void within the particle is apparent in one of the profiles (Fig. 9g). Similar surface structures and internal voids have been reported for 5-15 nm Pd particles supported on amorphous silica spheres 121-124 .

Magnetic MEMS

At the tip of the cantilever beam, a permanent magnet array is electroplated in order to achieve the bi-directional actuation. Below the cantilever beam, the permanent magnet array is placed along the axis of the electromagnet (Cho 2002). For a large bi-directional deflection and dynamic scanning capability, Cho has designed an optical scanner supported by two serpentine torsion bars. A schematic diagram of the scanner is illustrated in Fig. 2.7. The scanner is designed to have a silicon mirror supported by two serpentine torsion bars (Fig. 2.8), carrying a permanent magnet made by bumper filling at its tip on the opposite side.

Future Perspectives

Schematic diagram depicting rapid-prototyping of nanodevices via SPL strategy. Designed patterns are directly printed onto the substrate without any intermediate steps. The fabricated devices are tested and the test result can be used to redesign device patterns. Figure 14. Schematic diagram depicting rapid-prototyping of nanodevices via SPL strategy. Designed patterns are directly printed onto the substrate without any intermediate steps. The fabricated devices are tested and the test result can be used to redesign device patterns.

Rr rr rr rr tr

Schematic diagram for light amplification through stimulated emission Fig. 3.4. Schematic diagram for light amplification through stimulated emission Fig. 3.7. Schematic diagram for reflection and absorption of laser energy by a solid Fig. 3.7. Schematic diagram for reflection and absorption of laser energy by a solid

Quantum Dots

Schematic diagram of a PQD showing the gates and different material layers. Figure 2. Schematic diagram of a PQD showing the gates and different material layers. Figure 3. Schematic diagram of Tarucha's VQD. Adapted with permission from 11 , S. Tarucha et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3613 (1996). 1996, American Institute of Physics. Figure 3. Schematic diagram of Tarucha's VQD. Adapted with permission from 11 , S. Tarucha et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3613 (1996). 1996, American Institute of Physics.

Experimental

A schematic diagram of the stress sensor is shown in Fig. 1. In essence it is an optical-deflection AFM without a sample 33 . The housing for the sensor is machined from a single block of aluminum. The electrochemical cell is made from Teflon with a glass window through which the optical beam passes. The gold-coated lever itself is the working electrode and reference and counter electrodes are positioned within the cell for electrochemical control. Electrical contact to the lever is made via a thin insulated wire which is glued to the lever holder with conducting epoxy resin. This connection is then insulated with an inert, insulating epoxy resin. The quality of the voltammograms that we have obtained indicates that there is minimal contamination caused by the epoxy resin. Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the experimental arrangement. Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the experimental arrangement.

Scheme

Methodology for atomic layer deposition (ALD) synthesis.50-52 The surface sol-gel technique generally consists of two-half reactions (1) nonaqueous condensation of metal-alkoxide precursor molecules with surface hydroxyl groups and (2) aqueous hydrolysis of the adsorbed metal-alkoxide species to regenerate surface hydroxyls. Iteration of the above sequential condensation and hydrolysis reactions allows the layer-by-layer coating of a selected metal oxide on a hydroxyl-terminated surface. Scheme 5.1 is a schematic diagram of the basic synthesis protocol for ultrathin TiO2 on SBA-15. The SBA-15 materials have hexagonally packed channels with pore sizes of 7.4 nm. The large mesopores allow a facile transport of metal-alkoxide reactants inside the mesopores not only for monolayer but also for multilayer functionalization on the internal walls of SBA-15.

Types of Atom Probe

Schematic diagrams of the classical atom probe, the three-dimensional atom probe and the local electrode atom probe. Some of the different types of detectors used on the three-dimensional atom probe are illustrated. Figure 2. Schematic diagrams of the classical atom probe, the three-dimensional atom probe and the local electrode atom probe. Some of the different types of detectors used on the three-dimensional atom probe are illustrated.

Background

A schematic diagram of an MPN as an individual particle, its component parts, and a film is shown in Fig. 2. The film represents a cross section where gold cores are separated by the organic monolayers, with areas of lower density suggested between the MPNs. As a sorptive layer, molecules could sorb into the thiol material and or the free volume associated with areas of lower density.

Experimental Method

Aerosols with an average drop size of 1.5 xm were generated by a (Sonaer Ultrasonic Model 241CST) nebulizer. The aerosol was carried through a conical nozzle into the growth chamber by SF6 gas. The schematic diagram of the laser-assisted spray pyrolysis system is shown in Fig. 2. The droplets and the SF6 gas interact with the focused 10.6 im wavelength CO2 laser beam at the nozzle. The laser power of 3W used in the experiment was sufficient to increase the temperature of the gas and subsequently the droplets to about 350 C. Approximate value of the gas temperature was measured in a calibration experiment where a thermocouple was placed in front of the gas jet, just outside the laser beam-gas interaction volume. Oxygen was introduced into the growth chamber to promote oxidation of the depositing film. The flow rate and thus the speed of the aerosol into the chamber were controlled by gas flow meters. The pressure inside the chamber was about 700 Torr. Films were deposited on quartz or...

Principles of ENFOL

Schematic diagram illustrating the evanescent near field optical lithography (ENFOL) process. Photolithography is performed through a conformable mask held in intimate contact with a resist layer that is much thinner than the illuminating wavelength Fig. 17.2. Schematic diagram illustrating the evanescent near field optical lithography (ENFOL) process. Photolithography is performed through a conformable mask held in intimate contact with a resist layer that is much thinner than the illuminating wavelength

Info

13 different caps, two of which are shown in Fig. 19.9. As another example, the projection mapping of an icosahedral cap for a (10,5) tubule is shown in Fig. 3.9 and 3.10(c). A schematic diagram of the (10,5) tubule is shown in Fig. 19.10, where the chirality of this tubule can be clearly seen. Fig. 19.10. (a) A projection mapping of the C 40 fullerene. (b) A model of CM0 with icosahedral I symmetry, (c) A schematic diagram of the (10,5) single-wall tubule capped by hemispheres of the icosahedral C140 fullerene at both ends 19.28 , Fig. 19.10. (a) A projection mapping of the C 40 fullerene. (b) A model of CM0 with icosahedral I symmetry, (c) A schematic diagram of the (10,5) single-wall tubule capped by hemispheres of the icosahedral C140 fullerene at both ends 19.28 , terminations and six cylinders with semitoroidal terminations, creating a lip on the tubule cap, which is clarified by the schematic diagram shown in Fig. 19.13(b).

Composition

Schematic diagrams showing (a) an indium-enriched island nucleated on the wetting film and (b) the island further growing by consuming progressively In-depleted wetting film. The indium compositions are represented by grey scale with darker areas having higher indium composition. (After Tersoff 194 ) Figure 10. Schematic diagrams showing (a) an indium-enriched island nucleated on the wetting film and (b) the island further growing by consuming progressively In-depleted wetting film. The indium compositions are represented by grey scale with darker areas having higher indium composition. (After Tersoff 194 )

Microwave Synthesis

Recently, there has been a growing interest in heating and sintering of ceramics by the microwave energy. 48,49 The interest in the use of microwave processing spans a number of fields from food processing to medical applications to chemical applications. A major area of research in microwave processing of ceramics includes microwave material interaction, dielectric measurement, microwave equipment design, new material development, sintering, joining, and modeling. Therefore the microwave processing of ceramics has emerged as a successful alternative to conventional processing. Nevertheless, microwave method not only offers the advantages of a uniform heating at lower temperature and time than the conventional method, but also provides an economic method of processing. The microwave energy has been already successively utilized in the fabrication of ceramics as well as carbon fibers at low temperature and time. Varadan et al. 50 and Sharma, Varadan, and Varadan 51 have synthesized...

Sol Gel Method

Preparation of mesoporous carbons by carbonizing organic gels was initiated by Pekala 101 . In his study, resorci-nol was condensed with formaldehyde in alkaline solution. A schematic diagram of the resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gelation mechanism is presented in Figure 30. Resorcinol was first substituted with hydroxymethyl group by a catalytic action of alkaline reagent. The products condensed into surface functionalized polymer clusters that cross-link to form a gel. Pekala and co-workers carbonized the organic gel and found that the resulting carbon aerogel has high porosity (> 80 ) and a high surface area (400-900 m2 g) 102 . The mesoporosity of the carbon aerogels can be ascribed to a network structure that was inherited from the original organic aerogel.

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