Homemade Skin Care Recipes
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a powerful technique for studying bimolecular interactions at the atomic scale. Our NMR laboratory is involved in the identification of small molecules, or ligands, that bind to target protein receptors such as tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) and botulinum neurotoxin, anthrax proteins, and HLA-DR10 receptors on non-Hodgkin lymphoma cancer cells. Once low-affinity binders are identified, they can be linked together to produce multidentate synthetic high-affinity ligands (SHALs) that have very high specificity for their target protein receptors. An important nanotechnology application for SHALs is their use in the development of robust chemical sensors or biochips for the detection of pathogen proteins in environmental samples or body fluids. Here we describe a recently developed NMR competition assay based on transferred nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy that enables the identification of sets of ligands that bind to the same site, or a...
Predictive In Vitro Toxicological Assays in Tissue Culture Cells that Are Premised On the Hierarchical Oxidative Stress
In vitro assays for NM toxicity should consider the portal-of-entry as well as possible systemic cellular targets (Table 6.4). Different NM may necessitate different test strategies depending on the exposure risk. With this sense of physiological relevance in mind, we can select cell type, dosage, and endpoints according to the demands of the situation. For instance, if a particular NM is found in skin-care products, it would be more logical to study its effects on keratinocytes. If, on the other hand, the NM is being produced as singlet particles that can be easily
People using skin preparations such as cosmetics and sun-screens are subject to dermal exposure. Some sun-screens contain titanium dioxide nanoparticles. It is by no means firmly established that they do reduce risks of skin cancer. Furthermore, while there is evidence that nanoparticles cannot penetrate healthy skin, it is not certain that they cannot penetrate lesions (such as areas of skin already damaged by sunburn). The likely impact of ingested nanomaterials is unknown (Chapter 14), but is likely to be less serious than respiratory exposure and is probably less of a concern than dermal exposure. Once in the body, it is possible that nanoparticles could cause damage at the neural and cellular level, possibly even penetrating into the brain (see Royal Society and Royal Academy of Engineering, 2004) although the implications of this penetration are unknown.
A novel biosensing platform uses engineered nanowires as an alternative substrate for immunoassays. Nanowires built from submicron layers of different metals, including gold, silver, and nickel, are able to act as ''barcodes'' for detecting a variety of pathogens, such as anthrax, smallpox, ricin, and botulinum toxin. This approach could simultaneously identify multiple pathogens via their unique fluorescent characteristics. The team, led by LLNL and including researchers from Stanford University, the UC Davis Center for Biophotonics, and Nanoplex Technologies, used multistriped metallic nanowires in a suspended format to rapidly identify sensitive single and multiplex immunoassays that simulated biowarfare agents ranging from anthrax, smallpox, and ricin to botulinum. The entire assay can be performed within 3-4 hours, thus making it feasible to employ it on a rapid diagnostic platform. The core of this portable bioweapon recognition system consists of two parts. Nanowires with a...
A start at treating one of the basic symptoms would be a nano-machine designed to improve the skin's elasticity, or at least to prevent further deterioration. What gives youthful skin the ability to adapt gracefully to the body's contours and movements while remaining tough enough to resist the wear and tear of everyday life is its supply of collagen fibers. Old skin is softer and floppier than young skin it has less collagen, either because its cells make less collagen than they used to or because they produce too much collagenase, an enzyme that destroys collagen fibers. Most likely, both processes are at work.
Difficulties in fabrication consistency that might cripple one applicationfor example, one that depends on a consistent nanotube lengthcould be irrelevant in a task, such as heat conduction, that depends only on aggregate properties. Other such aggregate-property impacts of nanomaterials include improved air retention in tennis balls, better stain resistance in fabrics, longer shelf life and better skin-penetration characteristics for cosmetic and physical-therapy products, and reduced degradation of meat and cheese products prior to sale.-61 These are not merely potential applications, but are actual uses of mass-produced nanomaterials that are now being incorporated into consumer products. For example, nearly half of Dockers clothing uses nanotechnology-based fabric treatments that resist stains or improve perspiration handling.
With a growing number of companies ( 350) in the United States and abroad that have their research and development sights set on the next big thing, nanotech-nology will affect everything. The potential of building materials from components the size of a virus opens up tantalizing possibilities. Planes, trains, and automobiles, as well as biosensors, skin care products, computers, paints, and coatings are all at the brink of a technological tsunami that we can only estimate today. Many large companies (along with a lot of governments) are spending big money on nanotech research to keep from being left in the nano dust.
The case study on the use of nano-scale titanium dioxide in suntan lotions illustrates the problems associated with future applications of nanoparti-cles. A number of experts question the full safety of the application. At the same time, a number of important investigations on the effects of nano-scale titanium dioxide in the human body are lacking, although the main use, i.e. application to the healthy skin, appears to be unproblematic, according to our latest knowledge. However, the fact that this is a non-contained, environmentally open application could cause a number of problems. We do not know how the structures substances behave in nature after being washed off or leaving the skin in the course of natural skin exfoliation. In light of already occurring problems with suntan lotion residues on lake and sea shores, these questions should not be neglected.
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