Nanotechnology solutions for future space demands

In order to get an overview of possible nanotechnology applications in

° ^ cu ft- Matrix of space techno space, space technological requirements are confronted with the working logical requirements and areas of the nanotechnology competence centers in table 7. The space potential nanotechnolo-application fields were classified according to the main topics of the gy applications "Technology requirement document" of the ESA (ESTEC 1999, see section 4.2).

Nano-Competence Centers (CC) ^ Space technologies 4-

Nanochem, Na-nobio, Nanomat

Nanolayers

NanOp

Lateral Na-nostructures

Ultraprecise Surfaces

Nanoanalytics

Earth Observation

Microwave equipment and antenna technologies

Components for Limb-Sounder and SAR (Amplifier, diodes, etc.)

V

V

Optics/Optoelectronics

Extremely high resolution optics, lightweight Optics, high integrated CCD

V

V

V

High temperature IR sensors (QD), Microbolo-meter

V

V

LIDAR-technologies

Diode pump laser for solid state laser

V

Telecommunications

On-Board equipment technologies

Components for data communication in the EHF-Band (SSPA, HEMT, HBT, etc.)

V

V

V

Components for optical data communication, Intra- and Intersatellite links

V

V

Antenna technologies (e.g. large, lightweight and unfoldable antennas)

V

V

V

Navigation und Positioning

On-Board equipment technologies

Electronic components ( e. g. SSPA)

V

V

Science and Exploration

In-situ instrument technologies

Miniaturized instruments for geochemical analyses (e. g. AFM devices)

V

Aerogel for particle detection

V

X-ray technologies

Mirrors for X-ray astronomy

V

V

Laser technologies

Diode pump laser for ultrastable solid-state lasers (LISA-Mission)

V

Optical technologies

Lightweight IR-Optics, high integrated CCD (GAIA Mission)

V

V

V

Nano-Competence Centers (CC) ^ Space technologies ^

Nanochem, Na-nobio, Nanomat

Nanolayers

NanOp

Lateral Na-nostructures

Ultraprecise Surfaces

Nanoanalytics

Microwave equipment technologies

Components for radar systems (MMIC, HEMT etc.)

V

V

V

Manned spaceflight and microgravity

Life support technologies

Gas sensors, biochemical sensors, electronic nose

V

V

Oxygen generation

V

Waste water and exhaust air treatment

V

Heat exchanger

V

Biomedical monitoring of astronauts

V

V

Thermal protection technologies

Improved thermal protection systems, hot structures and re-entry technologies for earth and mars atmosphere

V

V

Robotics and automation

Miniaturized sensors (mechanical, chemical, thermal, radiation etc.)

V

V

V

Miniaturized and integrated electronics

V

V

V

Generic technologies

Structure technologies

High strength lightweight materials for space structures (MMC, CNT, plastics etc.)

V

Energy generation and storage

High efficient solar cells (Multi junction III/V-semiconductor, QD, dye, polymer etc.)

V

V

V

High efficient fuel cells (SOFC, PEM), hydrogen storage, batteries (Li-Ion, NiH2), supercapa-citors

V

Thermal Control and Protection

Miniaturized active control elements

V

V

High temperature technologies for operations up to 2000 °C (ceramic composites)

V

Thermal control layers (e.g. DLC)

V

Propulsion technologies

Solar sails (thin film technologies, multifunctional layers etc.)

V

V

Nano-Competence Centers (CC) ^ Space technologies 4-

Nanochem, Na-nobio, Nanomat

Nanolayers

NanOp

Lateral Na-nostructures

Ultraprecise Surfaces

Nanoanalytics

AOCS technologies

High integrated, miniaturized sensors (IR-earth sensor, startracker, gyroscope etc.)

V

V

V

On-Board data processing and data communication

Radiation hard microelectronics (e.g. MRAM, SOI, ASICs)

V

V

Energy saving high performance data processing

V

V

Mass storage

V

V

V

Microwave Components for HF-range (transistors, MMIC, SAW-filters etc.)

V

V

V

Components for broadband downlink (EHF-Band or optical)

V

V

V

Optoelectronic components (optical couplers, laser, etc.)

V

V

Space transportation

Liquid propulsion systems

Gas sensors for engine monitoring

V

V

Improved turbopumps and lines

V

Solid propulsion systems

Materials for housings and nozzles (e. g. reinforced polymers)

V

Improved propellants, non-chlorinated, (e. g. aluminum nanopowders)

V

Materials, thermal protection

Hot structures and thermal protection for reentry and rocket propulsion (ceramic fiber composites, gradient layers etc.)

V

V

Table 7: Possible nanotechnology applications for future space technology demands

Table 7: Possible nanotechnology applications for future space technology demands

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