Table of Contents

1 INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 Settings of Tasks 2

1.2 Approach 2

2 R&D ACTIVITIES IN NANOTECHNOLOGY 5

2.1 R&D Landscape in Germany 6

2.2 International Activities 9

3 NANOTECHNOLOGY ACTIVITIES IN SPACE 13

3.1 Literature analysis 13

3.2 Patent analysis 17

3.3 National activities 21

3.4 Activities at European level 23

3.5 Activities of NASA 23

4 REQUIREMENTS AND APPLICATION FIELDS FOR FUTURE

SPACE SYTEMS 29

4.1 Space technology demands 29

4.2 Space application fields 35

5 APPLICATION POTENTIALS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN SPACE 39

5.1 Nanotechnology solutions for future space demands 39

5.2 Nanochemistry, nanomaterials and nanobiotechnology 43

5.3 Ultrathin functional layers 61

5.4 Nano-optoelectronics 68

5.5 Lateral nanostructures 71

5.6 Ultraprecise surface processing 78

5.7 Nanoanalytics 80

5.8 Summary and evaluation 82

6 SPACE AS RESEARCH INSTRUMENT FOR NANOTECHNOLOGY 95

6.1 Microgravity research for nanotechnology 95

6.2 ISS as research instrument 104

6.3 Summary and evaluation 107

7 RESULT AND RECOMMENDATIONS 109

7.1 Applications of nanotechnology in space 109

7.2 Space spin-off for nanotechnology 113

8 APPENDIX 115

8.1 Abbreviation list 115

8.2 Literature list 117

8.3 Evaluation of nanotechnology applications in space 123

8.4 Question catalog for written expert questioning 126

8.5 Lists of participants of the ANTARES meetings 126

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