Usa

The USA occupy the second position regarding the public research funding in the range of nanotechnology scarcely behind Japan (see illustration 1, chapter 2). For the year 2003 a further substantial rise of nanotech-National Nanotechnology nology funding summing up to 710 million $ was announced (IEEE Initiative in the USA 2002). In the USA the Nanotechnology Initiative was established in the year 2000 (NNI)12, aiming at the promotion of nanotechnology as an urgent national task.

The largest portion of funding is attributable to the National Science Foundation (NSF) as well as the ministries for defense (DOD) and for energy (DOE). Nanotechnology research centers were established in nearly all larger scientific-technological universities and partly also within the non-university range. In some research fields public-private partnerships exist e.g. the SEMATEC consortium within the field of mic-ro/nano-electronics, which is supported by the DARPA and substantial factoring of industrial enterprises (see National Research Council 2002). Several US-American enterprises such as IBM, Hewlett-Packard or Motorola possess their own nanotechnological research centers, which are partly cooperating closely with universities. Beyond that, a multiplicity of smaller enterprises, which were founded e.g. in the context of the SBIR-programme of the Federal Government or other federal programmes, are specialised in distinct nanotechnology areas (e.g. Nanocor, Na-nogene, Nanophase, Nanopore, Nanosphere, Nanowave etc.).

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