Final Exam

All of the following are DNA nitrogenous bases except 2. Tests at the National Institutes of Environmental and Health Sciences and the Federal Drug Administration are looking at what kind of exposure route for engineered nanoparticles 3. Depending on which medicine molecules are encapsulated, doctors would be able to change the (b) necessity of taking medicine (c) strength and type of medicine prescribed 4. Killer organisms, doomsday weapons, and science run amok are science fiction, not (d)...

Startups

Even though the nanotechnology market is still very much under construction, legitimate nano companies are coming up with great innovations and products. Many of these companies are evolving out of university research, headed by brilliant scientists who have never written a business plan. Some companies hire business managers to get things off the ground and make sure a reliable growth model is in place. Then, when everything is running smoothly, they hand off to operational managers and others...

Water Purification

Water is critical to human existence. The lack of a clean water supply not only affects health, but contaminated water from animal and human waste and chemical pollution and runoff is especially harmful. Access to clean water is a bigger problem than hunger in underdeveloped, war-torn, or natural disaster areas. In the United States, drinking water standards have been revised and water treatment methods are being changed to meet stricter contaminant standards. As the planet's population and...

Suspended Nanowires

Nanowires are made in a laboratory either through suspension or deposition. A suspended nanowire is created in a vacuum chamber, made by chemically etching a bigger wire, by blasting a larger wire with high energy particles, or by pushing a nanoprobe's tip into the soft surface of a partly melted metal and pulling it back to get a nanowire like the gooey mozzarella cheese that sticks to your fork in a long thread after pulling it back from a hot pizza. Figure 9-4 Nanowires can be made from...

Fluid Flow

The super small size of nanotubes allows them to pierce the skin painlessly always a plus , especially for people who have to check their blood several times a day, such as Type II diabetes patients. TheraFuse, Inc., is an emerging technology company that designs and develops infusion systems for delivering pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical liquids. Since 2001, TheraFuse has created products that measure various fluid flow rates during therapeutic drug infusion e.g., very low insulin...

Gold Nanoshells

Figure 6-6 Gold-coated nanoshells are simple yet effective nanotechnology agents. Nanoparticles with a silica glass core and gold shell have been designed to absorb light wavelengths in the near-infrared i.e., in the total spectrum of light where light's penetration through tissue is greatest. Figure 6-7 shows the different wavelengths of the spectrum. The visible part of the spectrum is further divided according to color, with red at the long wavelength end and violet at the short wavelength...

Nomenclature

Nomenclature is the naming of things. In the scientific world, an international naming system exists for both chemistry and biology. In the chemical world, chemical nomenclature is used to communicate specifics about different chemicals and compounds. Chemical nomenclature is the standardized system used to name chemical compounds. Chemical symbols, first based on Latin words, are used as an elemental code, because using the full name for a lot of chemicals can take a lot of paper or a lot of...

Plenty of Room at the Bottom

On December 29, 1959, Professor Richard Feynman a 1965 Nobel Prize winner in physics presented a lecture entitled There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom during the annual meeting of the American Physical Society at the California Institute of Technology Caltech . He described a field that few researchers had thought much about, let alone investigated. Feynman presented the idea of manipulating and controlling things on an extremely small scale by building and shaping matter one atom at a time. He...