Doping with Nanoparticles

Doping with nonsuperconducting nanoparticles is another way to introduce pinning centers into HTSs. This way is more practical than the irradiation techniques, from the point of view of large-scale applications of HTSs. This is because irradiation techniques would be difficult to employ in industrial size applications. The nanoparticles have to satisfy certain criteria to be acceptable as pinning centers. Their presence should not affect the formation of the superconducting phase. They should not agglomerate in the superconductor, ensuring that the nonsuperconducting inclusions are of the size of The molten precursors for the superconductor should adhere to the surface of the nanoparticles, to ensure their incorporation into superconducting crystal. As with the irradiation-induced defects, the pinning properties depend on the shape of the particles.

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