Charge-coupled device (CCD) A photodetector used in digital camera systems for sensitive detection of photos. Dark-field microscopy A microscopic method that creates the dark background and the bright object with a high contrast between the object and the surrounding field [73]. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) A macromolecule consists of one or two strands of linked deoxyribonucleotides. Differential interference contrast microscopy (DIC) A microscopic method derives contrast in an unstained specimen from differences in index of refraction of specimen components [73].

Fluorescence The emission of light by a substance immediately after the absorption of energy from light of usually shorter wavelength.

Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) A

technique to observe and quantify the movement of molecules by loading fluorescent tagged molecules, bleaching the fluorescence of a defined region of the specimen, and recovery of fluorescence in the bleached area based upon the mobility of the fluorescent molecules. Human interleukin 2 (hIL-2) A cytokine that stimulates the immune system.

Interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R) The protein has specific binding affinity with interleukin-2.

Metastases Pathogenic microorganisms or cancerous cells transmitted from an original site to one or more sites elsewhere in the body.

Mouse interleukin 3 (mIL-3) A peptide cytokine that stimulates haemopoiesis and activates mononuclear phagocytes and B and T lymphocytes.

Nanoparticle video ultramicroscopy (NANOVID) Tracking of the trajectories of individual microscopic particles attached to relevant molecules using optical microscopy equipped with video camera [40].

Nitric oxide (NO) A colorless gas, an important nitrogen compound, plays numerous biological roles in living organisms.

Probes encapsulated by biologically localized embedding

(PEBBLES) The polymer-based fluorophore nanoparticles prepared by incorporation of fluorophores with a polymeric matrix [14, 15].

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) A gram-negative bacterium that resists to a wide spectra of structurally and functionally unrelated substrates and is the epitome of an opportunistic pathogen of humans.

Quantum dots Inorganic nanocrystalline particles made from semiconductor materials.

Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) An experimental imaging technique maps the surface at (near) atomic resolution by scanning the surface of the sample using a sharp probe.

Silver enhanced gold nanoparticle (SEGNP) The surface of gold nanoparticles is coated with a thin layer of silver to increase the intrinsic optical dielectric constant of nano-particle and enhance the detection sensitivity [8, 18]. Single particle tracking (SPT) A method to track the trajectories of individual microscopic particles attached to relevant molecules.

T domain: Transmembrane domain of diphtheria toxin. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) An imaging technique takes advantage of shorter wavelengths of electrons to increase magnification and resolution. T-ZZ A short derivative of protein A fused with amino-terminal of transmembrane domain of diphtheria toxin. ZZ A short derivative of protein A.

ZZ-T A short derivative of protein A fused with carboxyl-terminal of transmembrane domain of diphtheria toxin.

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