Glossary

BET surface area A popular surface area obtained from nitrogen adsorption isotherm, using a formula derived by Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller.

Carbon aerogel Mesoporous carbon spheres obtained by carbonization of organic gels which are dried at supercritical conditions.

Carbon fiber (PAN-based and pitch-based) Fibrous carbon materials obtained by carbonization of fibrous raw materials derived from PAN and pitch. Electrochemical double layer capacitor (EDLC) A kind of capacitor utilizing the capacitance of electrochemical double layer formed near the electrode surface, showing extraordinarily high capacitance.

Mesophase pitch Optically anisotropic pitch due to liquid crystal nature.

Nongraphitizable and graphitizable carbons (hard and soft carbons) Type of carbon materials discriminated by the crystallinity after high temperature treatment (e.g., 3000 °C).

Polymer electrolytic membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) Type of fuel cell utilizing proton exchangeable polymer as an electrolyte of a fuel cell. It is expected to work at lower temperature than conventional fuel cells and to be utilized in domestic and on-board power generation in the near future.

sp, sp2, and sp3 Hybridizaton Electronic states of atoms determining molecular shapes. Carbyne, graphite, and diamond are available for carbon atom.

Supercritical fluid (SCF) A fluid at the state over its critical point, showing high solubility and low viscosity. It is also recognized as a new type of solvent for reactions.

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