High-temperature superconductivity is one of the most studied phenomena in the last 20 years. This is because of its potential to bring the fascinating world of superconductivity into our everyday life. However, soon after the discovery of high-temperature superconductivity [1-4], it became clear that two main obstacles have to be overcome: vortex pinning and grain connectivity. Improvement of vortex pinning in high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) is in the domain of nanotechnology, because of their special intrinsic physical properties. This chapter outlines improvement of vortex pinning in HTSs by introduction of nanosize pinning centers.

Because of the wide range of intended readership, the contribution will begin with a simple description of basic principles of superconductivity and vortex pinning. The focus will gradually shift to more specific topics, intended for more advanced readers.

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