Existence of nanopores or nanocavities of a regular size and shape in polymer matrix creates interfaces between pore volume and polymer walls, thus creating nanostructures in polymers. These pores can be formed in polymers due to special conditions of polymer synthesis or polymer nature  and may serve as nanoreactors for particle growth; in this case, a particle size may be restricted by a pore size. This approach is very common for mesoporous solids where metal compounds are incorporated inside the pores and then nanoparticle growth is carried out within the pores [24, 25], but it is rather rare for polymers as the polymers containing regular interpenetrating cavities and pores are also uncommon. A detailed description of template synthesis of various nanoparticles (polymer, metal, metal oxide, etc.) in nanoporous membranes is given in a review article . Here, porous alumina membranes are the most commonly used templates, although polycarbonate porous membranes were also described.
Two types of cavities will be considered here: (i) with and (ii) without any functional groups which might interact with metal compounds.
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