References

1. "National Nanotechnology Initiative: Leading to the Next Industrial." Interagency Working Group on Nanoscience, Engineering and Technology, White House Press, Washington, DC, 1999.

2. G. Frazier, "An Ideology for Nanoelectronics in Computation." Plenum, New York, 1988.

4. L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, "Theory of Elasticity." Butterworth Heineman, Oxford, 1998.

5. Z. L. Wang, P. Poncharal, and W. A. de Heer, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 61, 1025 (2000).

6. Q. Zhao, M. Buongiorno Nardelli, and J. Bernholc, Phys. Rev. B 65, 144105 (2002).

7. G. A. D. Briggs, "Acoustic Microscopy." Clarendon, Oxford, 1992.

8. E. Meyer, R. M. Overney, K. Dransfeld, and T. Gyalog, "Nanoscience: Friction and Rheology on the Nanometer Scale." World Scientific, Singapore, 1998.

9. A. C. Fischer-Cripps, "Nanoindentation." Springer, New York, 2002.

10. H. Hertz, "Hertz's Miscellaneous Reports." Macmillan, London, 1896.

11. H. Hertz, Verh. Ver. Beförderung Gewerbe Fleisses 61, 410 (1882).

13. N. Sasaki and M. Tsukada, Appl. Surf. Sci. 140, 339 (1999).

14. M. Tsukada, N. Sasaki, R. Tamura, N. Sato, and K. Abe, Surf. Sci. 401, 355 (1998).

15. J. P. Spatz, S. Sheiko, M. Moller, R. G. Winkler, P. Reineker, and O. Marti, Nanotechnol. 6, 4 (1995).

16. J. Chen, R. K. Workman, D. Sarid, and R. Hoper, Nanotechnol. 5, 199 (1994).

17. K. L. Johnson, K. Kendall, and A. D. Roberts, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 324, 310 (1971).

18. G. Sperling, Eine Theorie der haftung von Festsoffteilchen an festern Korpern Ph.D. Dissertation, Fakultat der Maschinenwesen T. H. Karlsruhe, 1964.

19. K. Inagaki, O. Matsuda, and O. B. Wright, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2386 (2002).

20. B. V Derjaguin, V. M. Muller, and Y. P. Toporov, J. Coll. Interface Sci. 53, 314 (1975).

21. G. Binning, H. Rohrer, Ch. Gerber, and E. Weibel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 57 (1982).

22. A. Baratoff, G. Binnig, and H. Rohrer, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 1, 703 (1983).

23. N. Garcia, C. Ocal, and F. Flores, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 2002 (1983).

24. G. Binnig, C. F. Quate, and Ch. Gerber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 930 (1986).

25. H. Geisler, M. Hoehn, M. Rambach, M. A. Meyer, E. Zschech, M. Mertig, A. Romanov, M. Bobeth, W. Pompe, and R. E. Geer (unpublished).

26. N. A. Burnham and R. J. Colton, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 2906 (1989).

28. S. P. Jarvis and J. B. Pethica, in "Forces in Scanning Probe Methods." Kluwer Academic NATO ASI Series 286, Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 1995.

29. E.-L. Florin, M. Radmacher, B. Fleck, and H. E. Gaub, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 639 (1994).

30. B. Cretin and F. Sthal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 829 (1993).

31. N. A. Burnham, A. J. Kulik, G. Gremaud, P.-J. Gallo, and

F. Oulevey, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 794 (1996).

32. N. A. Burnham, O. P. Behrend, F. Oulevey, G. Gremaud, P.-J. Gallo, D. Gourdon, E. Dupas, A. J. Kulik, M. M. Pollock, and

33. O. Kolosov and K. Yamanaka, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L1095 (1993).

34. K. Yamanaka, H. Ogiso, and O. Kolosov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 178 (1994).

35. F. Dinelli, S. K. Biswas, G. A. D. Briggs, and O. V. Kolosov, Phys. Rev. B 61, 13995 (2000).

36. Y. Zheng (unpublished results).

37. N. A. Burnham, A. J. Kulik, G. Gremaud, and G. A. D. Briggs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5092 (1995).

38. G. S. Shekhawat, O. V. Kolosov, G. A. D. Briggs, and R. E. Geer, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4549 (2002).

39. F. Dinelli, M. R. Castell, D. A. Ritchies, N. J. Mason, G. A. D. Briggs, and O. V. Kolosov, Philos. Mag. A 80, 2299 (2000).

40. L. Muthuswami, E. S. Moyer, Z. Li, and R. E. Geer, "Proceedings of the IEEE 2002 International Interconnect Technology Conference," Cat. No. 02EX519C, 2002, p. 239.

41. K. Yamanaka, H. Ogiso, and O. Kolosov, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 3197 (1994).

42. G. G. Yaralioglu, F. L. Degertekin, K. B. Crozier, and C. F. Quate, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7491 (2000).

43. H. Geisler, M. Hoehn, M. Rambach, M. A. Meyer, E. Zschech, M. Mertig, A. Romanov, M. Bobeth, W. Pompe, and R. E. Geer, "Proceedings of the Xllth International Conference on Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials," 2001.

44. B. Altemus, G. Shekhawat, X. Bai, R. E. Geer, and J. Castracane, Proc. SPIE, Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 4558, 143 (2001).

45. O. V. Kolosov, M. R. Castell, C. D. Marsh, G. A. D. Briggs, T. I. Kamins, and R. S. Williams, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1046 (1998).

48. D. J. Eaglesham and R. Hull, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 30, 197 (1995).

49. M. R. Castell, D. D. Perovic, and H. Lafontaine, Ultramicroscopy 69, 279 (1997).

50. "Handbook of Chemistry and Physics," 66th ed. CRC Press, Cleveland, OH, 1986.

51. T. R. Stoner, University at Albany (private communication).

52. T. Stark and A. E. Kaloyeros, University at Albany (unpublished results).

53. G. Shekhawat and R. E. Geer, Nanotechnol. (in press).

54. G. S. Shekhawat, O. V. Kolosov, G. A. D. Briggs, E. O. Schaffer, S. Martin, and R. E. Geer, "Materials, Technology and Reliability for Advanced Interconnects and Low-k Dielectrics. Symposium: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings," Vol. 612, 2001, p. 1.

55. G. S. Shekhawat, O. V. Kolosov, G. A. D. Briggs, E. O. Shaffer, S. J. Martin, and R. E. Geer, "Proceedings of the International Interconnect Technology Conference," IEEE Cat. No. 00EX407, 2000, p. 96.

56. G. S. Shekhawat, G. A. D. Briggs, O. V. Kolosov, and R. E. Geer, "Characterization and Metrology for ULSI Technology 2000, AIP Conference Proceedings," Vol. 550, 2001, p. 449.

57. R. E. Geer and G. S. Shekhawat, "Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Composites Engineering," 2002, p. 299.

58. P. Van Zant, "Microchip Fabrication: A Practical Guide to Semiconductor Manufacturing." McGraw-Hill, New York, 1997.

59. R. Talevi, H. Gundlach, Z. Bian, A. Knorr, M. van Gestel, S. Padi-yar, A. E. Kaloyeros, R. E. Geer, E. O. Shaffer, and S. Martin, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 252 (2000).

60. H. Gundlach, R. Talevi, Z. Bian, G. Nuesca, S. Sankaran, K. Kumar, A. E. Kaloyeros, R. E. Geer, J. Liu, J. Hummel, E. O. Shaffer, and S. J. Martin, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2463 (2000).

61. M. R. Baklonov, M. Van Hove, G. Mannert, S. Vanhaelemeersch, H. Bender, T. Conard, and K. Maex, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 1281 (2000).

62. S. A. Vitale, H. Chae, and H. H. Sawin, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2770 (2000).

63. R. E. Geer, O. V. Kolosov, and G. A. D. Briggs (unpublished).

64. W. W. Graessly, "Physical Properties of Polymers," 2nd ed. ACS, Washington, DC, 1992.

65. F. Iwata, T. Matsumoto, and A. Sasaki, Nanotechnol. 11, 10 (2000).

66. E. Hamada and R. Kaneko, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 25, 53 (1992).

67. K. Inagaki, O. V. Kolosov, G. A. D. Briggs, and O. B. Wright, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1836 (2000).

68. U. Rabe and W. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 21 (1994).

69. U. Rabe, V. Scherer, S. Hirsekorn, and W. Arnold, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 1997.

70. U. Rabe, S. Amelio, E. Kester, V. Schere, S. Hirsekorn, and W. Arnold, Ultrason. 38, 430 (2000).

71. K. B. Crozier, G. G. Yaralioglu, F. L. Defertekin, J. D. Adams, S. C. Minne, and C. F. Quate, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1950 (2000).

72. O. Wright and N. Nishiguchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 626 (1997).

73. G. G. Yaralioglu, F. L. Degertekin, K. B. Crozier, and C. F. Quate, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7491 (2000).

74. T. Tsuji, H. Irihama, and K. Yamanaka, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 832 (2002).

75. S. P. Jarvis, A. Oral, T. P. Weihs, and J. B. Pethica, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3515 (1993).

76. G. Behme and T. Hesjedal, Appl. Phys. A 70, 361 (2000).

77. G. Behme and T. Hesjedal, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 4850 (2001).

78. H. Safar, R. N. Kleiman, B. P. Barber, P. L. Gammel, J. Pastalan, H. Huggins, L. Fetter, and R. Miller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 136 (2000).

79. K. Yamanaka, Y. Maruyama, T. Tsuji, and K. Nakamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1939 (2001).

80. O. V. Kolosov and G. A. D. Briggs, International Patent WO 98/08046.

81. M. T. Cuberes, H. E. Assender, G. A. D. Briggs, and O. V. Kolosov, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 33, 2347 (2000).

82. G. S. Shekhawat, H. Xie, Y. Zheng, and R. E. Geer, Mater. Res. Symp. Proc. 2002.

83. D. H. Robertson, D. W. Brenner, and J. W. Mintmire, Phys. Rev. B 45, 12592 (1992).

84. P. M. Ajayan and T. W. Ebbesen, Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 1025 (1997).

85. A. Thess, R. Lee, P. Nikolaev, H. Dai, P. Petit, J. Robert, C. Xu, Y. H. Lee, S. G. Kim, A. G. Rinzler, D. T. Colbert, G. E. Scuseria, D. Tomanek, J. E. Fisher, and R. E. Smalley, Science 273, 483 (1996).

86. C. Journet, W. Maser, P. Bernier, A. Loiseau, P. Deniard, S. Lefrant, R. Lee, and J. Fischer, Nature 388, 756 (1997).

87. M. F. Yu, B. S. Files, S. Arepalli, and R. S. Ruoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5552 (2000).

88. L. Vaccarini, C. Goze, L. Henrard, E. Hernandez, P. Bernier, and A. Rubio, Carbon 38, 1681 (2000).

89. D. Tekleab and D. L. Carroll, Phys. Rev. B 64, 35419 (2001).

91. J. Bernholc, C. Brabec, M. Buongiornio Nardelli, A. Maiti, C. Roland, and B. I. Yakobson, Appl. Phys. A 67, 39 (1998).

92. J. P. Salvetat, J. M. Bonard, N. H. Thomson, A. J. Kulik, L. Forro, W. Benoit, and L. Zuppiroli, Appl. Phys. A 69, 255 (1999).

93. G. Zhou, W. Duan, and B. Gu, Chem. Phys. Lett. 333, 344 (2001).

94. J. W. Mintmire, B. I. Dunlap, and C. T. White, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 631 (1991).

95. L. Meirovitch, "Elements of Vibration Analysis." McGraw-Hill, New York, 1986.

96. B. I. Yakobson, C. J. Brabec, and J. Bernholc, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2511 (1996).

99. E. Hernandez, C. Goze, P. Bernier, and A. Rubio, Appl. Phys. A 68, 287 (1999).

100. S. Govindjee and J. L. Sackman, Solid State Commun. 110, 227 (1999).

102. N. Yao and V. Lordi, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1939 (1998).

103. A. K. Rappe, C. J. Casewit, K. S. Colwell, W. A. Goddard, III, and W. M. Skiff, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 114, 10024 (1992).

104. E. J. Seldin and C. W. Nezbeda, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 3389 (1970).

105. A. K. Rappe, K. S. Colwell, and C. J. Casewit, Inorg. Chem. 32, 3438 (1993).

106. C. J. Casewit, K. S. Colwell, and A. K. Rappe, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 114, 10035 (1992).

107. G. Gao, T Gagin, and W. A. Goddard, Nanotechnol. 9,184 (1998).

108. D. Porezag, T. Frauenheim, T. Köhler, G. Seifert, and R. Kashner, Phys. Rev. B 51,12947 (1995); J. Widany, T. Frauenheim, T Köhler, M. Sternberg, D. Porezag, G. Jungnickel, and G. Seifert, Phys. Rev. B 53, 4443 (1996).

109. C. M. Goringe, D. R. Bowler, and E. Hernandez, Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 1447 (1997).

110. Z. Xin, Z. Jianjun, and O.-Y. Zhong-can, Phys. Rev. B 62, 13692 (2000).

111. M. Menon, E. Richter, and K. R. Subbaswamy, J. Chem. Phys. 104, 5875 (1996).

112. J. Yu, P. K. Kalia, and P. Vashishta, J. Chem. Phys. 103, 6697 (1995); D. Tomanek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2331 (1991).

113. Z.-C. Ou-Yang, Z. B. Su, and C.-L. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4055 (1997).

114. J. Guenzburger and D. E. Ellis, Phys. Rev. B 45, 285 (1992).

115. D. E. Ellis, J. Guo, and H. P. Cheng, J. Phys. Chem. 92, 3024 (1988).

116. M. M. Treacy, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. M. Gibson, Nature 381, 678 (1996).

117. A. Krishnan, E. Dujardin, T. W. Ebbesen, P. N. Yianilos, and M. M. J. Treacy, Phys. Rev. B 58, 14013 (1998).

118. J. P. Salvetat, G. A. D. Briggs, J. M. Bonard, R. R. Bacsa, A. J. Kulik, T. Stockli, N. A. Burnham, and L. Forro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 944 (1999).

119. M. F. Yu, B. S. Files, S. Arepalli, and R. S. Ruoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5552 (2000).

120. Z. W. Pan, S. S. Xie, L. Lu, B. H. Chang, L. F. Sun, W. Y. Zhou, G. Wang, and D. L. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3152 (1999).

121. R. Gao, Z. L. Wang, Z. Bai, W. A. de Heer, L. Dai, and M. Gao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 622 (2000).

122. D. Srivastava, M. Menon, and K. Cho, Phys. Rev. B 63, 195413 (2001).

123. N. G. Chopra and A. Zettl, Solid State Commun. 105, 297 (1998).

124. R. S. Ruoff and D. C. Lorents, Carbon 33, 925 (1995).

125. S. Xie, W. Li, Z. Pan, B. Chang, and L. Sun, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 61, 1153 (2000).

126. M. F. Yu, M. J. Dyer, and R. S. Ruoff, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 4554 (2001).

127. M. R. Falvo, G. J. Clary, R. M. Tayulor, V Chi, F. P. Brooks, S. Washburn, and R. Superfine, Nature 389, 582 (1997).

128. E. L. Axelrad, Int. J. Non-Linear Mech. 20, 249 (1985).

130. S. Iijima, C. Brabec, A. Maiti, and J. Bernholc, J. Chem. Phys. 104, 2089 (1996).

131. M. Buonigiorno Nardelli, B. I. Yakobson, and J. Bernholc, Phys. Rev. B 57, 4277 (1998).

132. M. Buonigiorno Nardelli, B. I. Yakobson, and J. Bernholc, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4656 (1998).

133. Q. Zhao, M. Buongiorno Nardelli, and J. Bernholc, Phys. Rev. B 65, 144105 (2002).

134. V. M. Harik, Solid State Commun. 120, 331 (2001).

135. K. Liao and S. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4225 (2001).

136. P. M. Ajayan, O. Stephan, C. Colliex, and D. Trauth, Science 265, 1212 (1994).

137. H. D. Wagner, O. Lourie, Y. Feldman, and R. Tenne, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 12 (1998).

138. L. S. Schadler, S. C. Giannaris, and P. M. Ajayan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3842 (1998).

139. L. Jin, C. Bower, and O. Zhou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1197 (1998).

140. M. S. P. Shaffer and A. H. Windler, Adv. Mater. 11, 937 (1999).

141. D. Qian, E. C. Dickey, R. Andrews, and T. Rantell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2868 (2000).

142. R. Andrews, D. Jacques, A. M. Rao, T. Rantell, F. Derbyshire, Y. Chen, J. Chen, and R. C. Haddon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1329

143. X. Gong, J. Liu, S. Baskaran, R. D. Voise, and J. S. Young, Chem. Mater. 12, 1049 (2000).

145. F. Li, H. M. Cheng, S. Bai, G. Su, and M. S. Dresselhaus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3161 (2000).

146. Y. Xu, Y. Tsai, D. W. Zheng, K. N. Tu, Chung W. Ong, C. L. Choy, B. Zhao, Q.-Z. Liu, and M. Brongo, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 5744

147. "The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors," 1999 ed. Semiconductor Industry Association, Santa Clara, CA, 1999.

148. D. M. Smith, J. Anderson, C. C. Cho, G. P. Hohnston, and S. P. Jeng, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 381, 261 (1995).

149. C. Jin and J. Wetzel, "Proceedings of the International Interconnect Technology Conference," IEEE Cat. No. 00EX407, 2000, p. 99.

150. C. M. Flannery and M. R. Baklonov, "Proceedings of the International Interconnect Technology Conference," IEEE Cat. No. 02EX519C, 2002, p. 233.

151. S. Yang, J. C.-H. Pai, C.-S. Pai, G. Dabbagh, O. Nalamasu, E. Reichmanis, J. Seputro, and Y. S. Obeng, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2155 (2001).

152. C. M. Flannery, T. Wittkowski, K. Jung, B. Hillebrands, and M. R. Baklanov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4594 (2002).

153. G. Kloster, T. Scherban, G. Xu, J. Blaine, B. Sun, and Y. Zhou, "Proceedings of the International Interconnect Technology Conference," IEEE Cat. No. 02EX519C, 2002, p. 242.

155. D. W. Gidley, W. E. Frieze, T. L. Dull, A. F. Yee, E. T. Ryan, and H.-M. Ho, Phys. Rev. B 60, R5157 (1999).

156. N. Aoi, T. Fukuda, and H. Yanazawa, "Proceedings of the International Interconnect Technology Conference," IEEE Cat. No. 02EX519C, 2002, p. 72.

157. G. Shekhawat, J. Wetzel, J. Lin, and R. E. Geer (unpublished).

158. N. A. Roy, H. Bakhru, G. S. Shekhawat, and R. E. Geer (unpublished).

Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

www.aspbs.com/enn

Was this article helpful?

0 0

Post a comment