As a surface treatment through chemical reaction can lead to much stronger interactions between modifiers and nanoparticles, much more attention has been paid to this area. In general, a chemical treatment can be divided into two aspects. One deals with the use of lower weight molecules, such as coupling agents, and the other with a grafting of polymer chains. In comparison, chemical techniques are more complicated than physical treatments because physical and chemical absorptions as well as polymerization of the modifiers are involved in the former. As is often the case, a three-dimensional multilayer structure forms on the solid surface, which is somewhat difficult to control and optimize.
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