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FIGURE 3.1 Structurally inspired biomaterials. Liposomes, virosomes, and polymersomes are examples of simple cell mimics without internal contents. They have been used for vaccines and targeted drug delivery systems. Peptide nucleic acids mimic both proteins and DNA, and peptoids are mimics of proteins. FIGURE 3.2 Functionally inspired biomaterials. Mussels and barnacles secrete proteinaceous bioglues for holdfasts on both organic and inorganic surfaces in aqueous environments....

Near Field Scanning Optical Microscopy

A TopoMetrix Aurora-2 NSOM was used for our experiments. A schematic of the NSOM system is shown in Figure 12.3. The fiber-optic probe (aperture size 60-100 nm) attached to a piezoelectric tuning fork was mounted on the removable Aurora-2 microscope head and positioned above the sample. A resonating frequency ranging between 90 and 100 kHz was selected with less than 1 nm lateral amplitude at the probe end. Samples were mounted directly beneath the tip on a X-Y piezo scanner that is used to...

Continuum Solvation Models

It is well known that solvation effects are critical to the structural and dynamical properties of macromolecules. In the present case, the polymeric nanoparticles are produced from a very dilute solution and show strong solvent dependencies of the observed photophysical properties. Therefore, modeling the structure of these PPV-based nanoparticles must include the influence of the solvent. Although a full microscopic description of solvation is possible using MD or mechanics with explicit...

Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer

Fluorescence resonance energy transfer FRET is a nonradiative transfer of energy between two fluorophores that are placed within close vicinity 20 to 100 A of each other in a proper angular orientation 13,17 . In a typical FRET experiment, a biological macromolecule is labeled at two different positions with a donor and an acceptor fluorophore having spectral overlap. Single-pair FRET between the two fluorophores has been measured to determine the distance between two fluorophores and has been...