Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) An analytic method involving exciting atoms using electron beam to emit characteristic X-rays which are sorted out according to their energy to reveal the elemental composition of a specimen. Mesoporous molecular sieves A class of porous materials with the pore diameter in the range of 2 nm to 50 nm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) A technique for imaging surface morphology of solids using backscattered or secondary electrons.

Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) A technique for observing diffraction patterns from a small specimen area.

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) A technique for imaging ultramicrostructure of materials by using a transmitted electron beam and diffracted electron beams. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) A technique for structure determination based on the scattering of X-rays by matter that is extensively used for the studies of polycrystalline materials and materials possessing long range ordering.

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