Carbonaceous mesophase A complex mixture of numerous essentially aromatic hydrocarbons containing anisotropic liquid-crystalline particles.

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) A new form of graphite-related carbon with "rolling" of graphene sheets into a cylindrical morphology. The materials can be broadly divided into two types: single-walled and multi-walled CNTs. Electrolysis An electrochemical process involves both reduction (at cathode) and oxidation (at anode) reactions for electrolytes in an electrolytic device. Electron-induced synthesis Chemical synthesis with assistance of external electrons (e.g., under the radiation of an energetic electron beam).

Hydrothermal synthesis A chemical synthesis carried out under high temperature and pressure conditions. The high pressure is normally self-generated from water vapor (or other chemical solvents, i.e., solvothermal synthesis) at elevated temperatures.

Metathesis The chemical replacement or transposition takes place between two adjacent molecules or two different reactants.

Pyrolysis A chemical process involves thermal decomposition reactions of reactants.

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