Photoluminescence (PL) Photoluminescence is simply the emission of photons from an excited molecular species, where the excitation of the molecular species is by the absorption of light.

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) An electron microscopic technique capable of providing structural information over a wide range of magnification. SEM compliments optical microscopy for studying the texture, topography, and surface features over a wide range, from 10—2 to ~102/m. Single-bubble sonoluminescence and multibubble sonolu-minescence (SBSL and MBSL) The acoustic cavitation bubble is nearly spherical in SBSL, with an almost infinite number of oscillating bubbles being observed, while in MBSL, it is more likely to be nonspherical, with only a small number of oscillations.

Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) Mol formula CH3(CH2)1r OSO3Na is stable, incompatible with strong acids and oxidizing agents, and used as a surfactant to encapsulate nanoparticles.

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