Indirect Techniques

Besides these "direct" techniques, a number of "indirect" techniques were used to establish the presence of the PEG coating and to test its efficacy. Indeed, the PEG corona greatly influences the nanoparticles' properties, such as: (i) surface charge and hydrophobicity, commonly obtained, respectively, by electrophoretic mobility measurements and by hydrophobic interaction chromatograpy and (ii) interaction with proteins (model proteins, complement, or competitive adsorption of plasma proteins) and cells.

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