Multiply Twinned Particles

Multiply twinned particles are clusters with 5-fold symmetry [39, 40]. Such particles are icosahedra and decahedra. Both types of clusters can be built up from deformed tetrahedral subunits [41, 42]. The subunits have to be deformed to close the necessary gaps that had to be incorporated in the case of ideal tetrahedra (all six edges are equal). These gaps would increase the surface energy. However, it has been reported that such gaps were observed [43]. It is assumed that these clusters are unstable.

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