Sputtering

A second popular deposition technique is magnetron sputtering, which can be radio frequency [25,26] or direct current [27,28]. Reactive sputtering is particularly useful for large-area films, but the deposition of complex oxides, comprising several cations, is difficult because of a possible change in the material composition between the target and the film. Regardless, these two techniques (PLD and sputtering) utilize highly-dense ceramic targets, and the configuration is usually "on-axis." This means that the plane of the substrate is perpendicular to the particles flux. Samples can also be produced in the "off-axis" configuration by sputtering [29] and PLD [3,30]. In the case of PLD, this decreases the surface roughness and avoids the formation of droplets associated with laser deposition.

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