Structural Characterization Techniques

A first step in a systematic approach toward improved SWNT production, study, and tailoring of their electronic and mechanical properties is a feedback of information coming from reliable characterization techniques. Several methods have been applied to obtain this information. The techniques comprise local probes such as transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and scanning tunneling microscopy, combined with tunneling spectroscopy and bulk-sensitive probes such as Raman scattering, optical absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. In the subsequent sections some of these methods will be introduced and the kind of information that can be obtained with them will be discussed.

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