Using Alkoxide Precursor

SnO2 semiconductor thin film coated on the glass substrate via sol-gel dip-coating technique is described here [77]. The glass substrate is ultrasonically cleaned, first in acetone and then in iso-propanol. The pre-cleaned substrate is then dipped in the solution of tin-isopropoxide (0.23 M) in iso-propanol and toluene, using a dip-coater with a withdrawal speed of 150 cm/min. The gel films are dried at 200 °C for 1 h in air. The substrate is dip-coated again using the same solution under similar conditions and then dried again at 200 °C for 1 h in air. The dried gel film is then fired at 600 °C in air. The film is heated at a rate of 30 ° C/min up to the firing temperature, held at that temperature for 1 h, and then cooled to room temperature inside the furnace. The sequence of chemical reactions during gelling, drying, and crystallization, for the film having stoichiometric composition, can be summarized as

SnO2 (amorphous) ^ SnO2 (crystalline)

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