Besides passive targeting of liposomes to the solid tumor site as mentioned above, liposomes can also be conjugated with ligands for active targeting. One of the examples is the incorporation of a ligand of FR to liposomes. FR is significantly overexpressed on many cancer cells compared to their healthy, normal counterparts. Thus, FR expression in malignant tissues can exceed its expression in the corresponding normal tissues by up to two orders of magnitude (Low and Antony 2004). For instance, the folate receptor is overexpressed in ovarian (52 of 56 cases tested), endometrial (10 of 11), colorectal (6 of 27), breast (11 of 53), lung (6 of 18), renal cell (9 of 18) carcinomas, brain metastases derived from epithelial cancers (4 of 5), and neuroendocrine carcinomas (3 of 21) (Garin-Chesa et al. 1993).
To illustrate the use of liposome nanoparticles for folate receptor-mediated cancer targeting, nanometer liposome particles with diameters of 100 nm, loaded with DOX and covalently attached with folate, were effectively delivered to KB xenograft tumors in mice and inhibited greater tumor growth resulting in a 31% higher (p < 0.01) increase in the lifespan of the tumor-bearing mice compared to those that received liposome loaded with DOX only (Pan et al. 2003).
Was this article helpful?
Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...