Conclusions

The capabilities of using titanium (Ti) as an electrochemical electrode have been increased remarkably by growing MWCNTs out of anodized Ti nanopores (MWCNT-Ti). MWCNTs improved the sensitivity of the bare Ti electrode displaying redox peaks in cyclic voltammograms and interestingly high capacitance. Such results provide evidence that MWCNT-Ti can serve as a novel electrochemical electrode with exceptional electrocatalytic properties due to increased surface area and conductivity. Moreover, MWCNTs were shown to be more electroactive in chemical transformations than the metallic (Ti) surface, which typically undergoes electrochemical oxidation or dissolution of metal oxides, but is chemically susceptible to corrosion. MWCNTs promoted a redox reaction by enhancing the direct electron transfer through their electrically conductive surfaces surrounded by ionic solutions, which contained the electroactive species, herein ferri/ferricyanide and the extracellular components from osteoblasts. Moreover, MWCNTs are cytocompatible, promoted osteoblast differentiation after 21 days, and can be integrated into a supercapacitor or battery to enhance the functionalities of biosensing systems in vivo. Therefore, MWCNT-Ti sensors are an exceptional candidate as an electrochemical electrode to determine in situ new bone growth surrounding an orthopedic implant. Further, the ability of MWCNT-Ti to sense osteoblast extracellular components by detecting their redox reaction profiles in specific concentrations may improve the diagnosis of orthopedic implant success or failure, and thus improve clinical efficacy.

Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank the Coulter Foundation for funding some of the results in this chapter.

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Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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