Neural Cells

In vitro, the response of neural and associated cells has been evaluated on a variety of materials. Multiple neural and neural-like cell types have been used to evaluate cell response to the scaffold on which they are grown. One such cell type, PC12, originates from the adrenal glands. Although this cell type is commonly chosen for neural tissue engineering experiments due to its relative ease of use and thorough characterization, it is not as physiologically relevant as other neural cell options and it does not produce true axons and dendrites. Nevertheless, it has been used in multiple studies to indicate desirable scaffold properties. Cell counts and increased number and length of neurites, extensions from the cell, are accepted as indicators of positive PC12 cell responses.

Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells are more physiologically relevant in comparison to PC12 cells. However, the collection and culture process is more demanding. Primary DRGs are harvested from the spinal cord of sacrificed Sprague-Dawley rats at around embryonic-day 15 (Corey et al. 2007). Cells may either be placed on uncoated samples or samples onto which laminin or other proteins have been adsorbed. As with PC12 cells, cell number, but particularly neurite number and length, are evaluated. Studies which have incorporated a directional stimulus may also evaluate the direction of neurite growth on the substrate. Antibodies for axon neurofilaments (Corey et al. 2007) or proteins associated with growth cone development can also be used as an indicator of cell activity.

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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