Ai H, Jones SA and Lvov YM. Biomedical applications of electrostatic layer-by-layer nano-assembly of polymers, enzymes, and nanoparticles. Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics 2003; 29: 23-43
American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) (2010). Available at: http://www.aaos.org/
Research/stats/patientstats.asp. Accessed November 10, 2010 Anselme K. Osteoblast adhesion on biomaterials. Biomaterials 2000; 21: 667-681 Anselme K, Bigerelle M, Noel B, Dufresne E, Judas D, Iost A and Hardouin P. Qualitative and quantitative study of human osteoblast adhesion on materials with various surface roughnesses. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 2000; 49: 155 Aoki N, Yokoyama A, Nodasaka Y, Akasaka T, Uo M, Sato Y, et al. Cell culture on a carbon nano-
tube scaffold. Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology 2005; 1: 402-404 Avouris P, Appenzeller J, Martel R and Wind SJ. Carbon nanotube electronics. Proceedings of the
IEEE 2003; 91(11): 1772-1784 Balani K, Anderson R, Laha T, Andara M, Tercero J, Crumpler E, et al. Plasma-sprayed carbon nanotube reinforced hydroxyapatite coatings and their interaction with human osteoblasts in vitro. Biomaterials 2007; 28(4): 618-624 Balasundaram G (2007) Nanomaterials for better orthopedics. In: Webster TJ, editor. Nanotechnology for the Regeneration of Hard and Soft Tissues. Singapore: World Scientific, pp 53-78 Biggs MJP, Richards RG, Gadegaard N, Wilkinson CDW and Dalby MJ. The effects of nanoscale pits on primary human osteoblast adhesion formation and cellular spreading. Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine 2007; 18: 399-404 Bren L. Joint replacement: an inside look. FDA Consumer 2004; 38(2). Available at: http://www.
fda.gov/fdac/features/2004/204_joints.html. Accessed November 10, 2010 Cao WP and Hench LL. Bioactive materials. Ceramics International 1996; 22: 493-507 Chen Y, Zhang TH, Gan CH and Yu G. Wear studies of hydroxyapatite composite coating reinforced by carbon nanotubes. Carbon 2007; 45(5): 998-1004 Das K, Bose S and Bandyopadhyay A. Surface modifications and cell-materials interactions with anodized Ti. Acta Biomaterialia 2007; 3: 573-585 Fass L (2007) Patient centric healthcare. 3rd IET Int. Conf. on Medical Electrical Devices &
Technology (London, 2-3 October 2007) Feied C, Jordan N, Kanhouwa M and Kavanagh J (2006) The new world of healthcare work: a Microsoft white paper. UK Focus International Lecture, The Royal Academy of Engineering (7 November 2007)
Giannona S, Firkowska I, Rojas-Chapana J and Giersig M. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes as cytocompatible material for enhanced adhesion and proliferation of osteoblast-like cells. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 2007; 7: 1679-1683 (1675)
Hao and Fostee RY. (2008) Wireless body sensor networks for health-monitoring applications.
Physiol meas. 2008; 29(11): R27-56 Haynes CA and Norde W. Globular proteins at solid/liquid interfaces. Colloids Surfaces B
Biointerfaces 1994; 2: 517 Hongliang R, Meng MQH and Chen X (2006) Physiological information acquisition through wireless biomedical sensor networks. Proc. 2005 IEEE Int. Conf. on Information Acquisition (Hong Kong and Macau, China, 27 June-3 July 2005) Iijima S. Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon. Nature 1991; 354(6348): 56-58 Itoh S, Nakamura S, Nakamura M, Shinomiya K and Yamashita K. Enhanced bone ingrowth into hydroxyapatite with interconnected pores by electrical polarization. Biomaterials 2006; 27: 5572-5579
Jiang L and Gao L. Carbon nanotubes-metal nitride composites: a new class of nanocomposites with enhanced electrical properties. Journal of Materials Chemistry 2005; 15(2): 260-266 Jones VM, et al. (2006) Remote monitoring for healthcare and for safety in extreme environments. In: M-Health: Emerging Mobile Health Systems. Istepanian R., Caxmin-Arayan, S., Pattichis C. (eds) Berlin: Springer, pp 561-574. ISBN 0387265589 Khang D, Sato M, Price RL, Ribbe AE and Webster TJ. Selective adhesion and mineral deposition by osteoblasts on carbon nanofiber patterns. International Journal of Nanomedicine 2006; 1(1): 65-72 Khang D, Lu J, Yao C, Haberstroh KM and Webster TJ. The role of nanometer and sub-micron surface features on vascular and bone cell adhesion on titanium. Biomaterials 2008; 29: 970-983 Kroese-Deutman HC, Van Den Dolder J, Spauwen PHM and Jansen JA. Influence of RGD-loaded titanium implants on bone formation in vivo. Tissue Engineering 2005; 11: 1867-1875 Lim JY, Shaughnessy MC, Zhou Z, Noh H, Vogler EA and Donahue HJ. Surface energy effects on osteoblast spatial growth and mineralization. Biomaterials 2008; 29: 1776-1784 Lin Y, Taylor S, Li H, Fernando KAS, Qu L, Wang W, et al. Advances toward bioapplications of carbon nanotubes. Journal of Materials Chemistry 2004; 14(4): 527-541 Linez-Bataillon P, Monchau F, Bigerelle M and Hildebrand HF. In vitro MC3T3 osteoblast adhesion with respect to surface roughness of Ti6Al4V substrates. Biomolecular Engineering 2002; 19: 133 Liu XH, Won YJ and Ma PX. Porogen-induced surface modification of nano-fibrous poly(L-lactic acid) scaffolds for tissue engineering. Biomaterials 2006; 27: 3980-3987 Mendelson Y, Duckworth RJ and Comtois G (2006) A wearable reflectance pulse oximeter for remote physiological monitoring. Proc. 28th IEEE EMBS Ann. Int. Conf. (New York City, USA, 30 August-3 September 2006). Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, vol 1, pp 912-915 Pattichis C, Kyriacou E, Voskarides S, Pattichis M, Istepanian R and Schizas C. Wireless tele-medicine systems: an overview. IEEE Antennas & Propagation Magazine 2002; 44: 143-153 Penders J, et al. (2008) Human++: from technology to emerging health monitoring concepts. Int. Workshop on Wearable and Implantable Body Sensor Networks (BSN 2008) (1-3 June 2008) pp 94-98. Accessed November 10, 2010 Picart C, Elkaim R, Richert L, Audoin T, Arntz Y, Cardoso MD, et al. Primary cell adhesion on RGD-functionalized and covalently crosslinked thin polyelectrolyte multilayer films. Advanced Functional Materials 2005; 15: 83-94 PillCam® Capsule Endoscopy. Available at: http://www.givenimaging.com/. Accessed November 10, 2010
Price RL, Waid MC, Haberstroh KM and Webster TJ. Selective bone cell adhesion on formulations containing carbon nanofibers. Biomaterials 2003; 24: 1877-1887 Price RL, Ellison K, Haberstroh KM and Webster TJ. Nanometer surface roughness increases select osteoblast adhesion on carbon nanofiber compacts. Journal of biomedical materials research Part A 2004; 70(1): 129-138 ProeT EX Project Webpage. Available at: http://www.proetex.org/. Accessed November 10, 2010 Puleo DA and Nanci A. Understanding and controlling the bone-implant interface. Biomaterials
1999; 20(23:24): 2311-2321 Qian H, Loizou PC and Dorman MF. A phone-assistive device based on bluetooth technology for cochlear implant users. IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering 2003; 11: 282-287. Accessed November 10, 2010
Qiu Q, Sayer M, Kawaja M, Shen X and Davies JE. Attachment, morphology, and protein expression of rat marrow stromal cells cultured on charged substrate surfaces. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 1998; 42: 117 Rincon C, Chattopadhyay S and Meredith C (2009) Development of semi-conductor biomaterials for regulating cell growth. Annual Meeting of AICHE (Salt Lake City) Roman R, Lopez J and Gritzalis S. Situation awareness mechanisms for wireless sensor networks.
IEEE Communications Magazine 2008; 46: 102-107. Accessed November 10, 2010 Sato S, Kawabata A, Kondo D, Nihei M and Awano Y. Carbon nanotube growth from titanium, cobalt bimetallic particles as a catalyst. Chemical Physics Letters 2005; 402(1-3): 149-154
Saxby R (2007) How silicon will transform healthcare. 3rd IET Int. Conf. on Medical Electrical
Devices & Technology (London, 2-3 October 2007). Accessed November 10, 2010 Schofield I and Heath H (1999) Healthy Ageing: Nursing Older People. Amsterdam: Elsevier
Health Sciences. Accessed November 10, 2010 Schuler M, Owen GR, Hamilton DW, De Wilde M, Textor M, Brunette DM, et al. Biomimetic modification of titanium dental implant model surfaces using the RGDSP-peptide sequence: a cell morphology study. Biomaterials 2006; 27: 4003-4015 Schwiebert L, Gupta SKS and Weinmann J (2001) Research challenges in wireless networks of biomedical sensors. MobiCom '01: Proc. 7th Ann. Int. Conf. on Mobile Computing and Networking (New York, USA) pp 151-165. Accessed November 10, 2010 Seyedi A and Sikdar B (2008) Modeling and analysis of energy harvesting nodes in body sensor networks. Int. Workshop on Wearable and Implantable Body Sensor Networks (BSN 2008) (1-3 June 2008) pp 175-178. Accessed November 10, 2010 Shin H, Jo S and Mikos AG. Modulation of marrow stromal osteoblast adhesion on biomimetic oligo[poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate] hydrogels modified with Arg-Gly-Asp peptides and a poly(ethylene glycol) spacer. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 2002; 61: 169-179. Accessed November 10, 2010 Sirivisoot S and Webster TJ. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes enhance electrochemical properties of titanium to determine in situ bone formation. Nanotechnology 2008; 19(29): 295101 Sirivisoot S, Yao C, Xiao X, Sheldon BW and Webster TJ. Greater osteoblast functions on multi-walled carbon nanotubes grown from anodized nanotubular titanium for orthopedic applications. Nanotechnology 2007; 18(36): 365102 Smart SK, Cassady AI, Lu GQ and Martin DJ. The biocompatibility of carbon nanotubes.
Toxicology of Carbon Nanomaterials 2006; 44(6): 1034-1047 Smith R (2004) Bone Health and Osteoporosis: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Service, Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General, pp 68-700
Spectrums for Body Sensor Networks: GE Healthcare Monitoring Solution (2007) Presentations to FCC, ET Docket No. 06-135 (24 July 2007). Accessed November 10, 2010 Supronowicz PR, Ajayan PM, Ullmann KR, Arulanandam BP, Metzger DW and Bizios R. Novel current-conducting composite substrates for exposing osteoblasts to alternating current stimulation. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 2002; 59(3): 499-506 Texas Instruments (2007) CC2420 2.4 GHz IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee-Ready RF Transceiver:
Datasheet. Accessed November 10, 2010 Thomas KA and Cook SD. An evaluation of variables influencing implant fixation by direct bone apposition. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 1985; 19: 875 TinyOS Community Website. Available at: http://www.tinyos.net. Accessed November 10, 2010 Townsend KA, Haslett JW, Tsang TKK, El-Gamal MN and Iniewski K (2005) Recent advances and future trends in low power wireless systems for medical applications. Proc. 9th Int. Database Engineering & Application Symposium (IDEAS'05). Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Computer Society Vogler EA. Water and the acute biological response to surfaces. Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition 1999; 10: 1015-1045
Walter P, Kisv'arday ZF, G'ortz M, Alteheld N, Rossler G, Stieglitz T and Eysel UT. Cortical activation via an implanted wireless retinal prosthesis. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 2005; 46: 1780-1785. Accessed November 10, 2010 Washburn NR, Yamada KM, Imon Jr CG, Kennedy SB and Amis EJ. High-throughput investigation of osteoblast response to polymer crystallinity: influence of the nanometer-scale roughness on proliferation. Biomaterials 2004; 25: 1215-1223 Webster TJ. Nanophase ceramics as improved bone tissue engineering materials. American
Ceramic Society Bulletin 2003; 82: 23-28 Webster TJ and Ejiofor JU. Increased osteoblast adhesion on nanostructured metals: Ti, Ti6Al4V, and CoCrMo. Biomaterials 2004; 19: 4731-4739 Webster TJ and Smith TA. Increased osteoblast function on PLGA composites containing nano-
phase titania. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A 2005; 74(4): 677-686 Webster TJ, Ergun C, Doremus RH, Siegel RW and Bizios R. Enhanced osteoblast functions on nanophase ceramics. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 2000; 51: 475-479 Webster TJ, Waid MC, McKenzie JL, Price RL and Ejiofor JU. Nano-biotechnology: carbon nano-
fibres as improved neural and orthopaedic implants. Nanotechnology 2004; 15(1): 48-54 Wilson CJ, Clegg RE, Leavesley DI and Pearcy MJ. Mediation of biomaterial-cell interactions by adsorbed proteins: a review. Tissue Engineering 2005; 11: 1-18 Wong ACW, Kathiresan G, Chan CKT, Eljamaly O and Burdett A (2007) A 1V wireless transceiver for an ultralow-power wireless SoC for biomedical applications. Proc. IEEE Eur. Conf. Solid State Circuits (ESSIRC) (September 2007). Accessed November 10, 2010 Xiao Y. Accountability for wireless LANs, ad hoc networks and wireless mesh networks. IEEE
Communications Magazine 2008; 46: 116-126. Accessed November 10, 2010 Yao C and Webster TJ. Anodization: a promising nano-modification technique of titanium implants for orthopedic applications. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 2006; 6: 2682-2692
Yeatman EM (2006) Rotating and gyroscopic MEMS energy scavenging. Int. Workshop on Wearable and Implantable Body Sensor Networks (BSN 2006) (3-5 April 2006) p 4. Accessed November 10, 2010
Yoo H-J, Song S-J, Cho N and Kim H-J (2007) Low energy on-body communication for BSN. Body Sensor Networks (Aachen, Germany, 26-28 March 2007) pp 15-20. Accessed November 10, 2010
Zanello LP. Electrical properties of osteoblasts cultured on carbon nanotubes. Micro & Nano
Letters 2006; 1(1): 19-22 Zhao B, Hu H, Mandal SK and Haddon RC. A bone mimic based on the self-assembly of hydroxyapatite on chemically functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes. Chemistry of Materials 2005; 17(12): 3235-3241 Zhao Y, Hao Y, Alomainy A and Parini C. UWB on-body radio channel modelling using ray theory and sub-band FDTD. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 2006; 54: 1827-1835. Accessed November 10, 2010 Zhou G, Lu J, Wan C-Y, Jarvis MD and Stankovic JA (2008) BodyQoS: adaptive and radio-agnostic QoS for body sensor networks. 27th IEEE Conf. on Computer Communications (13-18 April 2008) pp 565-573. Accessed November 10, 2010 Zhu B, Lu Q, Yin J, Hu J and Wang Z. Alignment of osteoblast-like cells and cell-produced collagen matrix induced by nanogrooves. Tissue Engineering 2005; 11: 825-834. Accessed November 10, 2010
Zhu Y, Keoh SL, Sloman M, Lupu E, Dulay N and Pryce N (2008) A policy system to support adaptability and security on body sensors. Int. Workshop Wearable and Implantable Body Sensor Networks (BSN 2008) (1-3 June 2008) pp 37-40. Accessed November 10, 2010 ZigBee Alliance Website. Available at: http://www.zigbee.org/en/index.asp. Accessed November 10, 2010
Zimmerman TG (1996) Personal area networks: near-field intrabody communication. IBM Systems Journal 1996; 35: 609-617. Accessed November 10, 2010
Was this article helpful?
Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...