Step 1 Preparation of Nanotubular Anodized Titanium

In order to create orthopedic sensors, currently implanted titanium (Ti) has been modified to have a nanotube-structured thin layer of titanium dioxide (TiO2) by anodization (Sirivisoot et al. 2007). Briefly, 99.2% commercially pure Ti sheets (Alfa Aesar) can be cut into squares (1 cm2) and cleaned with acetone and 70% ethanol under sonication for 10 min each. After rinsing with deionized water, Ti can be etched for 10 s in a solution of 1.5% by weight of nitric acid and 0.5% by weight of hydrofluoric acid to remove the existing oxidized-layer on Ti. Immediately after etching, Ti can be placed as an anode electrode and a high purity platinum (Pt) mesh (Alfa Aesar) can be used as a cathode. In a Teflon beaker, both electrodes can be immersed in an electrolyte solution of 1.5% by weight of hydrofluoric acid in deionized water. The distance between Ti and the platinum mesh should be around 1 cm. A direct current power supply (3,645 A; Circuit Specialists) can then be used at 20 V between the anode and cathode for 10 min to create uniform nanotubes of TiO2 on commercially pure Ti. It is from these uniform titanium nanotubes that electrically active sensing MWCNTs can be grown, as described next.

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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