Afterward, MWCNTs can be grown out of the nanoporous TiO2 by CVD. A plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system (Applied Science & Technology Inc.) can be used to grow MWCNTs from the nanotubular anodized Ti. To do this, the anodized Ti samples can be soaked in a solution of 5% by weight of Cobaltous Nitrate (Allied Chemical) in methanol for 5 min prior to the CVD process. Then, cobalt-catalyzed anodized Ti should be rinsed with distilled water and dried with compressed air. The samples can then be placed in the CVD chamber and the air pumped out to a base pressure below 10 mTorr. The samples can be heated to 700°C in a flow of 100 standard cubic centimeters per minute (sccm) hydrogen gas (H2) for 20 min. The gas composition can be changed to 40 sccm H2 and 160 sccm acetylene gas (C2H2) for 30 min to grow MWCNTs. The MWCNT-Ti should be cooled in a 100 sccm Argon flow. The dense and entangled MWCNTs can form a three-dimensional structure on the Ti surface with exceptional electrical conductivity and surface area. In particular, conventional Ti, shown in Fig. 1a, exhibits a smooth Ti oxide surface. After anodization, nanopores of Ti oxide are formed on the Ti surface uniformly with diameters of 50-60 nm and depths of
200 nm, as shown in Fig. 1b. After the CVD process described here, MWCNTs covered the anodized Ti, as shown in Fig. 1c, side view, and Fig. 1d, top view.
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