The Biofilm

Catheter infections are difficult to treat because of biofilm formation. After cathe-terization, bacteria (from the patient's own skin, hospital personnel, or equipment) quickly attach and some adhere irreversibly to the catheter surface, secreting polymeric-like substances (composed of mostly polysaccharides) and form a biofilm which consists of bacteria and a polymeric-like matrix (Fig. 2). Bacteria in a biofilm can escape from the film and enter the blood, lungs, etc., causing serious problems. Biofilms tenaciously bind to today's catheter surfaces. More importantly, bacteria in biofilms are extremely resistant to antibiotic treatment due to the slow

REVERSIBLE ADSORPTION OF BACTERIA (sec >

IRREVERSIBLE ATTACHMENT OF BACTERIA (sec -min Î

GROWTH & DIVISION OF

BACTERIA

EXOPOLVHER PRODUCTION & BIOFU M FORMATION

ATTACHMENT

OF OTHER ORGANISMS TO

mm H M (days-months)

REVERSIBLE ADSORPTION OF BACTERIA (sec >

IRREVERSIBLE ATTACHMENT OF BACTERIA (sec -min Î

GROWTH & DIVISION OF

BACTERIA

EXOPOLVHER PRODUCTION & BIOFU M FORMATION

ATTACHMENT

OF OTHER ORGANISMS TO

mm H M (days-months)

Fig. 2 Formation of biofilm by bacteria (figure adapted from (http://bioinfo.bact.wisc.edu))

Fig. 2 Formation of biofilm by bacteria (figure adapted from (http://bioinfo.bact.wisc.edu))

transport of antibiotic molecules through the polymeric-like biofilm substance, altered microenvironment within the biofilm, and higher numbers of persistent cells (i.e., cells resistant to many types of stress) within the biofilm (compared to planktonic [free-floating] cells) (Donlan 2001; Davies 2003). Among the most common pathogens found in infected catheters and endotracheal tubes are Staphylococcus epidermidis (24%), Staphylococcus aureus (20%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (25%) (Donlan 2001; Chastre and Fagon 2002).

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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