Description and evaluation of production methods

In addition to this characterization of nanotechnologies at the technological level, we will now examine in a second step the relevant production methods for nanoparticles and nano-structured surfaces in more detail.

Due to the interdisciplinary nature of nanotechnology, an enormous wealth of methods for the production of nano-scale products can be found in the literature. Products can, for example, be differentiated according to their nano-scale basic structure: particle-like structures (e.g. nanocrystals, nanoparticles, and molecules), linear structures (e.g. nanotubes, nanowires, and nanotrenches), layer structures (nanolayers), and other structures such as nanopores, etc. Materials can also be produced from the gas phase, the liquid phase, or from solids in such a way that they are nano-scalar in at least one dimension. An overview of selected nanotechnology-based products and their application status is available in the appendix (Fehler! Verweisquelle konnte nicht gefunden werden.).

When evaluating the manifold nanotechnological products that are currently being applied or that are still in the development stage with respect to their method of production, from our point of view most products can be classified into one of the following seven basic process technologies:

• Gas-phase deposition

• Flame-assisted deposition

• Precipitation

• Molecular molding

• Lithography

• Self-organization

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