Eutrophication

Eutrophication describes the spread of chemical nutrients into water bodies. The anthropological contributions of nitrogen compounds (e.g. nitrates) from excessive applications of fertilizers as well as phosphorus compounds (e.g. phosphates) from detergents or agricultural runoff lead to overfertilization of waters. In addition to these two groups of compounds, the COD (chemical oxygen demand) is enlisted as a measure for calculating organic pollutants. A consequence of the excessive nutrient enrichment is the appearance of vast algae growths. Dying algae decompose under a high degree of oxygen consumption and therefore lead to a shortage of oxygen in the water body. Decomposition and decay processes are the result and produce toxic substance such as hydrogen sulfide, which in turn leads to fish die-off. This means that the increased nutrients in our waters will do long-lasting and in part irreparable damage to a fragile ecological structure.

For the life cycle impact assessment the following factors were explored.

Table 20. Impact factors utilized

Air emissions

Greenhouse poten-

Acidification

Eutrophication

tial (GWP 100)

potentials (AP)

potentials (NP)

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

1

Methane (CH4)

21

Nitric oxide (NOx)

0.70

0.13

Nitrous oxide (N2O)

310

Sulfur dioxide (SO2)

1.00

Hydrochloric acid (HCl)

0.88

Hydrogen fluoride (HF)

1.60

Ammonia (NH3)

1.88

0 0

Post a comment