It is anticipated that nanotechnology will inspire an array of improved surgical tools that will allow surgeons to operate on human subjects with greater precision and safety and to monitor patients more accurately. Nanotechnology is being used in the development of smart instruments and surgical robotics for use in laparoscopic or 'minimally invasive' surgical procedures. Smart instruments can be made with an ability to interpret the in vivo surgical terrain and assist the surgeon in performing surgical procedures. Robotic systems are already being used to give surgeons remote control over highly precise instruments that are inserted into laparoscopic ports in the patient. Specifically, surgical robotics systems are suited for use in gall bladder, prostate, colorectal, gynecological, gastric and lung surgeries (Jonietz, 2004).
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